Lee R. Pennington

Lee R. Pennington


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Lee R. Pennington was 'n senior FBI -agent wat nou saamgewerk het met J. Edgar Hoover. Hy beweer dat hy '70 000 vertroulike kontakte' in die Verenigde State het. Pennington, wat gespesialiseer het in die identifisering van linkse aktiviste, het baie inligting aan die Huiskomitee vir Un-Amerikaanse aktiwiteite (HCUA) verskaf. Gedurende hierdie tydperk ontmoet hy Lou Russell en James W. McCord.

Teen die tyd dat Pennington in 1953 uit die FBI tree, was hy die derde hoogste agent in die organisasie. Daarna werk hy aan die opstel van lêers oor binnelandse "subversiewe" vir die American Legion's National Americanism Commission. Later word hy direkteur van die Washington-kantoor van die regse groep, die Amerikaanse Veiligheidsraad.

Pennington werk ook vir die CIA wat hom $ 250 per maand betaal het deur 'n "steriele" tjek, wat nie na die regering teruggevoer kon word nie. Dit was so 'n geheime verhouding dat selfs die direkteur van die CIA nie daaroor ingelig is nie. Volgens David Wise (Die Amerikaanse polisiestaat): "een keer per maand sou Pennington by sy saakbeampte, Louis W. Vasaly, by die Burgundy Room, 'n restaurant in Chevy Chase, aanmeld." Oor 'n tydperk van vyftien jaar het Pennington ook inligting verskaf aan Paul Gaynor, die hoof van die CIA se sekuriteitsnavorsingspersoneel (CRS) en Howard Osborn, direkteur van die Office of Security.

Pennington het steeds kontak gehou met James W. McCord. Pennington se sekretaris, Donald Sweany, 'n voormalige personeellid van die huiskomitee oor on-Amerikaanse aktiwiteite, trou met McCord se sekretaris, Lucille.

Op 17 Junie 1972 is Frank Sturgis, Virgilio Gonzalez, Eugenio Martinez, Bernard L. Barker en James W. McCord gearresteer terwyl hulle in die hoofkwartier van die Demokratiese Party in Watergate was. Twee dae later is Pennington na McCord se huis waar hy Donald en Lucille Sweany ontmoet het. Terwyl hy daar was, het hy gekyk hoe die Sweanys en Ruth McCord 'n groot aantal dokumente vernietig wat verband hou met die inbraak van Watergate. Pennington beweer later dat hy sy CIA -saakbeampte, Louis W. Vasaly, ingelig het oor die verbranding van McCord se lêers.

Die FBI het inligting ontvang dat McCord se lêers vernietig is deur 'n voormalige CIA -agent genaamd "Pennington". Hulle het ook ontdek dat 'n man met die naam Pennington James W. McCord na sy huis in Rockville gery het nadat hy op borgtog vrygelaat is. FBI -agent, Donald L. Parham, het die CIA gevra om 'n verslag oor Pennington op te stel.

Volgens die skrywer, Jim Hougan Geheime agenda (1984): "Die CIA se reaksie op die FBI se navraag was om die buro die naam van 'n ander Pennington te gee - nie Lee R., Jr., maar Cecil H. Laasgenoemde was 'n afgetrede werknemer van die Office of Security. Hy het niks met die Watergate -aangeleentheid te doen nie en het McCord natuurlik nooit op enige tyd heen gedryf nie.Gegrillig deur die FBI om redes wat hy nie kon begryp nie, is sy alibi vinnig geverifieer, met die gevolg dat die voorsprong van Pennington in 'n doodloopstraat vir die buro, net soos die CIA bedoel het. ”

'N Naamlose amptenaar van die CIA het aan die senaatskomitee onder voorsitterskap van Lucien Nedzi gesê dat: "Hy (Edward F. Saye) het my destyds vertel ... dat mnr. Lee Pennington by die kantoor van mnr. McCord ingegaan het, wat enige aanduiding van die verband tussen die agentskap en mnr. McCord. " Die hoof van die sekuriteitsnavorsingspersoneel het gesê dat "Pennington te sensitief was en dat die besluit geneem is om eerder Cecil Pennington op te offer".

In Augustus 1972 het Richard Helms aan Stephen L. Kuhn, die adjunk -direkteur van die Office of Security, gesê om 'die (Pennington) materiaal uit die (Watergate) lêers te verwyder en dit afsonderlik te onderhou.' Hierdie boodskap is deurgegee aan 'n ander CIA -beampte wat geweier het om aan die bevel te voldoen. Hy het aan 'n ander beampte opgemerk dat die "agentskap nie sy eie L. Patrick Gray nodig het nie". Dit was 'n verwysing na L. Patrick Gray, die direkteur van die FBI wat die dokumente in die Withuis se kluis van E. Howard Hunt vernietig het. Die twee beamptes het die Pennington -materiaal in 'n verseëlde koevert geplaas en gemerk vir die regisseur se "Eyes Only". In Augustus 1973 het die nuwe CIA -direkteur, William Colby, gevra om alle lêers rakende die Watergate -skandaal te sien. Kuhn het die CIA -amptenaar opdrag gegee om hierdie dokumente bymekaar te kry, dat hy nie die Pennington -koevert in die materiaal wat aan Colby gegee is, moet insluit nie.

By 'n onderhoud met die Lucien Nedzi en sy senaatskomitee het Richard Helms erken dat hy tydens die Watergate -ondersoek beveel het dat alle bande en afskrifte van gesprekke wat in die geheim in sy kantoor en die Franse kamer opgeneem is ('n konferensielokaal wat deur senior amptenare van die CIA gebruik word) uitvee. . Meer as vierduisend bladsye opgeneemde gesprekke oor 'n tydperk van ses jaar is vernietig.

Helms het deur Mike Mansfield opdrag gekry dat alle dokumente rakende Watergate bewaar moet word. Helms het aan Nedzi gesê dat die vernietigde materiaal niks met Watergate te doen het nie: "Toe ek hoor van bande en die vernietiging van Watergate-verwante bande, was die ding wat my dadelik opgeval het:" wie weet wat op die bande was, behalwe ek of my sekretaris? Wie in die publiek kan beweer dat daar bande is wat verband hou met Watergate? "Lucien Nedzi antwoord:" Die probleem is ... hoe kan jy bewys dat dit nie verband hou met Watergate nie? "

In sy boek Secret Agenda beweer Jim Hougan dat Pennington aan Lou Russell en James W. McCord CIA -verslae verskaf het oor mense soos Jack Anderson wat deur die betrokkenes by Operation Sandwedge geteiken word. Hougan beweer dat "Lee R. Pennington McCord se uitsny van die sekuriteitsnavorsingspersoneel was."

William Colby het uiteindelik die Pennington -lêer gekry. Op 28 Junie 1974 rapporteer hy aan Howard Baker: 'Die resultate van ons ondersoek toon duidelik aan dat die CIA reeds in Junie 1972 inligting het dat een van sy betaalde agente, Lee R. Pennington, Jr. , het die James McCord-woning binnegekom kort ná die inbraak in Watergate en dokumente vernietig wat 'n verband tussen McCord en die CIA kan aantoon. "

Lee R Pennington is in Oktober 1974 aan 'n oënskynlike hartaanval oorlede.

Pennington was 'n goeie vriend van McCord, nadat hy in die vroeë vyftigerjare deur die jonger man gewerf is terwyl hy dien as direkteur van die American Legion se National Americanism Commission. In die hoedanigheid het hy McCord gehelp om die lede van die CIA te identifiseer wat om die een of ander rede as polities verdag beskou kan word. Hy kon dit doen omdat een van sy belangrikste pligte by die Legioen was om 'n waglys op te stel van Amerikaners wat die verkeerde byeenkomste bygewoon het, die verkeerde petisies onderteken het of by die verkeerde politieke party aangesluit het. Pennington se sekretaris, Donald Sweany, self 'n veteraan van die House Committee on Un-American Activities, het met McCord se sekretaris, Lucille, getrou. Dit was 'n reünie toe Pennington 'n paar dae na die inbraak by McCord se huis kom inloer het. Daar sê Pennington dat hy die Sweanys en mevrou McCord voor die kaggel sien staan ​​het, en elke stuk papier wat in die kantoorboeke, tydskrifte, lêers, foto's en alles van McCord gevind is, vernietig het. (Blykbaar, omdat die vuur haastig aangesteek is en moontlik dat die rookkanaal nie vooraf oopgemaak is nie, was die huis in rook verswelg en sou dit later weer geverf moes word; die mure was swart met roet, en die meubels was beskadig deur rook ) Pennington was gretig om hulp te verleen en gaan sit voor die vuur en begin dopgehou in die vlamme gooi. Later oor die inhoud van hierdie vouers gevra, kon Pennington nie veel help nie: soos hy gesê het, was dit nie asof 'n keuringsproses plaasgevind het nie-as dit papier was, het dit verbrand.

Dit is ten minste wat Pennington beweer het plaasgevind, en dat niemand tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat hulle getuienis vernietig nie, het mev McCord gesê dat die somervuur ​​op haar man se rigting gestig is. Volgens mev McCord het sy op 19 Junie, twee dae na die arrestasies, 'n telefoonoproep van Houston, Texas, ontvang waarin 'n bomdreigement gemaak is. In 'n telefoongesprek met haar man wat in die tronk was, het mev McCord hom van die dreigement ingelig. Hy onthou op sy beurt dat sy kantoor tuis gevul was met papiere van elke soort. As 'n bom in die huis afgaan, kan hierdie papiere aan die brand slaan, en meneer McCord het mevrou McCord aangesê om elke stuk papier in sy studeerkamer te verbrand. Dit was in werklikheid 'n voorkomende aanval, en 'n paar belangrike persoonlike koerante moes sekerlik in vlamme opgegaan het. Hoe vreemd dit ook al mag lyk, so moet die inligting van mev McCord dat die beweerde telefoondreigement uit Houston, Texas, kom, ook blyk. Hoe kon sy dit geweet het? Is die dreigement versamel?

Wat egter die verstommendste is oor hierdie brand, is nie die fatale verduideliking wat dit voorgehou het nie, maar die Ervin -komitee se versuim om McCord daaroor te bevraagteken. Daar was duidelik alle rede om te vermoed dat die hoofgetuie van die komitee beveel het dat potensieel waardevolle bewyse vernietig moet word, en tog, omdat die komitee van McCord die getuienis so gerieflik vind vir sy eie vooroordele, was senator Ervin en sy kollegas nie bereid om vrae aan McCord te stel nie dit kan sy geloofwaardigheid as getuie aantas of die moraliteit wat die komitee gekies het, bemoeilik.

Miskien is die mees blatante voorbeeld van die CIA se onderdrukking van getuienis plaasgevind in die sogenaamde 'die Pennington -aangeleentheid'. In Augustus 1972 het die FBI se pasiëntagent Parham in Alexandria die CIA gevra vir inligting oor 'n man met die naam Pennington wat eens McCord se toesighouer was. Die CIA stuur vrolik 'n lêer oor 'n voormalige werknemer met die naam Cecil H. Pennington wat geen verband met McCord gehad het nie. Dit was eintlik 'n geruime tyd, amper 'n half jaar, voordat die FBI verneem het dat die man wat hulle soek, Lee Pennington was, 'n goeie vriend van McCord.

En daar was goeie rede dat die CIA sand in die oë van agent Parham gooi. Lee Pennington, wat jare lank 'n betaalde informant vir die CIA se kantoor van veiligheid was, het kort na die inbraak in Watergate na McCord se huis gegaan en gehelp om dokumente wat McCord met die CIA verbind, te verbrand. In die paniek om die dokumente te vernietig, het iemand vergeet om die rookkanaal oop te maak, wat groot skade aan McCord se huis veroorsaak het; 'n CIA -getuie het gesê dat "drie kamers daarna geverf moes word".

Pennington was onwaarskynlik dat hy op 'n CIA -houer sou wees. Toe hy byna tagtig was, maar vermoedelik nog steeds besig was, het hy in 1953 by die FBI afgetree. Daarna het hy aan die werk gegaan om lêers oor binnelandse 'subversiewe' op te stel vir die 'National Americanism Commission' van die American Legion, wat later by die Amerikaanse sekuriteit gaan werk. Raad. Terwyl hy by die American Legion was, het Pennington beweer dat hy 'kontakte in die Verenigde State ontwikkel het wat inligting vir my sou inlewer:' Hy het gesê dat hy '70.000 vertroulike kontakte' regoor die land gehad het, en het gereeld inligting aan die House Un-American oorgedra Aktiwiteitskomitee. Hy ontvang $ 250 per maand van die CIA deur '' steriele 'tjek, wat nie by die regering teruggevoer kon word nie, blykbaar om kongresverhore, persverklarings en ander openlik beskikbare materiaal op te haal, wat 'n baie vreemde reëling was. Een keer per maand sou Pennington by sy saakbeampte, Louis W. Vasaly, by die Burgundy Room, 'n restaurant in Chevy Chase, aanmeld.

Terwyl mev McCord gehelp het om die dokumente te verbrand, het Pennington ten minste een met die opskrif "CIA" op die voorblad gesien. Toe hy terugkeer na sy eie huis, beweer Pennington later, het hy onmiddellik die CIA gebel om te rapporteer wat hy gesien het.

In Januarie 1974 is John Richards van die kantoor van die CIA -inspekteur -generaal besig om Watergate -lêers in die kantoor van sekuriteit te hersien. Vroeër of later sou hy die Pennington -lêer teëkom. Dus, volgens die daaropvolgende getuienis, het Osborn instruksies uitgereik om die Pennington -lêer te verwyder. Twee ondergeskiktes van die personeel van Osborn het ernstig beswaar aangeteken, en die besluit is omgekeer. Die lêers is aan Richards beskikbaar gestel.

Baker verduidelik sy ontdekking dat die CIA -veiligheidsdirekteur Osborn beveel het dat Pennington -materiaal uit die CIA Watergate -lêers verwyder word voordat die lêers aan die ondersoekkomitees van die kongres oorhandig is, en wys daarop dat die inligting oor Pennington in die eerste plek aan die lig gekom het "slegs as gevolg van die standpunt ingeneem deur 'n personeellid van die afdeling Personeelveiligheid. " Hierdie personeellid "was so bekommerd dat die dokumentêre bewyse - van die Pennington -inligting deur ander in die CIA vernietig sou word dat hy en 'n medewerker die betrokke memorandums gekopieer en in hul onderskeie persoonlike kluise geplaas het:" 'n Onbesonge Ellsberg, hierdie personeel werknemer. Die 'relevante memoranda' waarna verwys word, blyk 'n enkele interne CIA -verslag van Paul Gaynor te wees oor die resultate van agent Pennington se reis na die McCord -huis enkele ure na die arrestasie van Watergate. Soos ons sal sien, het Gaynor voortaan in noue kontak gebly met die McCord -operasie, ten minste tot die brief van 19 Maart en die opening van die Sirica -fase.

Een of albei hierdie anonieme "personeel van die CIA" (intelligensie -ontleders?) Wou nie saamgaan met 'n brief van die CIA wat die Ervin -komitee in kennis stel dat hy alles gesien het wat die CIA oor die vraag het nie. Volgens 'n Jim Squires -verhaal wat op 26 Maart 1974 in die Boston Globe verskyn het, is die verslag van Gaynor meer as 'n jaar lank geheim gehou deur die sekuriteitsdirekteur Osborn, wat 'verlede maand vroeg afgetree het'. Paul Gaynor het ook "verlede jaar by die agentskap afgetree." Koppe wat in die bos val-maak hulle 'n geluid?

Ons ondersoek toon duidelik aan dat die CIA reeds in Junie 1972 inligting gehad het dat een van hul betaalde agente, Lee R. Pennington, jr., Kort na die inbraak in Watergate die James McCord-woning binnegekom en vernietig het. dokumente wat 'n verband tussen McCord en die CIA kan toon. Hierdie inligting is eers op 22 Februarie 1974 aan hierdie komitee of iemand anders buite die CIA beskikbaar gestel toe 'n memorandum deur (Howard Osborn) die destydse direkteur van veiligheid (McCord se ou werk) aan hierdie komitee voorgelê is.

Die getuienis toon verder dat die FBI in Augustus 1972, toe die FBI navraag gedoen het oor 'n "Pennington", inligting was oor 'n voormalige werknemer met 'n soortgelyke naam.

Die Pennington -saak is om verskeie redes belangrik. Om mee te begin, spesifiseer 'n inligtingsnota met die handtekening van Howard Osborn spesifiek dat Pennington gehelp het om die lêers van McCord te vernietig om enige bewyse van 'n verband tussen McCord en die CIA uit te wis. Die belangrikste hiervan is die feit dat McCord se verbinding met die CIA in die verlede alreeds 'n openbare rekord was, inderdaad die voorblad van die openbare rekord, in die tyd dat Pennington in McCord se huis aan die brand gesteek het. Die gevolgtrekking is dus voor die hand liggend en onvermydelik: aangesien McCord se vroeëre verbinding met die CIA destyds bekend was, was die enigste doel om in Junie 1972 die lêers van McCord te vernietig, om bewyse van 'n voortgesette klandestiene verhouding tussen die CIA en die onlangs tronkstraf.

Die toesmeer van die Pennington-voorval is ook belangrik vir wat dit voorstel, hetsy in eie reg of saam met ander bewyse. Interne CIA-dokumente verwys na die feit dat Pennington sy saakbeampte herhaaldelik ingelig het oor die situasie van McCord ten opsigte van Watergate, en dat Pennington aan die sekuriteitsnavorsingspersoneel ondersoekverslae gegee het oor Jack Anderson wat McCord op grond van Lou Russell se inligting opgestel het . Dit blyk dus dat Lee R. Pennington McCord se uitsondering vir die sekuriteitsnavorsingspersoneel was. So ook, soos blyk uit die doelbewuste verberging van die Pennington-voorval deur die CIA se eie direkteur en inspekteur-generaal, is dit duidelik dat daar 'n geheime agenda aan die gang was binne die CIA-'n "tweede spoor" of "wegholoperasie" waartoe slegs 'n paar uitgesoekte persone (bv. generaal Gaynor) was bevoorreg.

Die CIA sit agter alles. Dit is die gevolgtrekking van Mae Brussell - een van Amerika se voorste sluipmoorddeskundiges - 'n navorser wat elke relevante koerantverhaal, elke boek, elke dokument versamel het sedert die Watergate -inbraak vier jaar gelede die nag van 17 Junie 1972.

Miss Brussell is die enigste persoon in Amerika wat die gruwelike reeks sterftes waargeneem het wat van Watergate tot nou strek.

Sy glo dat 'n faksie binne die Central Intelligence Agency nie net vir Watergate verantwoordelik is nie, maar ook vir die sluipmoorde op John en Robert Kennedy.

Sy meen, soos president Nixon op die Watergate -bande gesê het, dat alles wat verskriklik in die Amerikaanse politiek gebeur het, verband hou, begin met die Bay of Pigs.

Sommige van die 30 mense wat gesterf het, sê sy, weet net van die CIA -betrokkenheid by Watergate. Sommige van hulle het baie, baie meer geweet.

'N Paar van die dooies, soos Martha Mitchell, Lyndon Johnson, kongreslid Hale Boggs en Mafia hoodlum Sam Giancana, is bekend. Ander sou dalk gewees het - as hulle geleef het en hulle stories vertel het. Maar 30 is dood. En daar is geen rede om te glo dat daar nie meer sal wees nie.

1. Beverly Kaye (42) sterf in Desember 1973 aan 'n 'massiewe beroerte' terwyl hy in die Withuis se hysbak ry. Sy was die sekretaris van die geheime diens, John Bull, en haar werk was onder meer die stoor en bewaring van die Withuis -bande. Dit is byna sonder twyfel, sê Mae Brussell, dat sy geweet het wat op die bande was, insluitend die 18 minute opnames wat op geheimsinnige wyse uitgewis is. Soos berig in die Weskus-nuusdiens, "Earth News", op 5 Junie 1974, uit die verhale wat sy aan haar vriende en bure vertel het, was sy oortuig dat die president en sy medewerkers betrokke was by die Watergate-bedrog en toesmeerdery.

2. Murray Chotiner, 'n jarelange vriend van Nixon, is dood toe 'n regeringstrok op 23 Januarie 1974 in sy motor vasgery het. Aanvanklik is berig dat Chotiner slegs 'n gebreekte been opgedoen het, maar 'n week later is hy dood. Volgens 'n artikel van 31 Maart 1973 in die Los Angeles Times, was Chotiner moontlik een van die mense wat die bandopnames in die hoofkwartier van die Demokratiese veldtog in die Watergate -gebou ontvang het.

3. William Mills, die kongreslid van Maryland, is doodgeskiet - 'n oënskynlike selfmoord - een dag nadat dit bekend gemaak is dat hy versuim het om 'n veldtogbydrae van $ 25 000 wat president Nixon se finansiële verkiesingskomitee aan hom gegee het, te rapporteer. Mills (48) is ontdek met 'n haelgeweer van 12 meter aan sy voete en 'n "beweerde selfmoordbrief" wat aan sy liggaam vasgemaak is. In totaal is sewe sulke notas gevind, blykbaar deur Mills geskryf, hoewel dit nooit geverifieer is nie. Volgens juffrou Brussell kom die $ 25 000 uit die geheime fonds van $ 1,7 miljoen vir 'vuil truuks' wat die komitee gebruik het om die president te herkies.

4. en 5. James Webster en James Glover, sleutelmanne in Congressman Mills se veldtog, is in Februarie 1972 dood in 'n motorongeluk. 'N Ander veldtogwerker het op 23 Mei 1973 in die Washington Post gesê dat die onwettige bydrae van $ 25 000 afgelewer by Mills se veldtogbestuurder James Webster.

6. Hale Boggs, die kongreslid van Louisiana en lid van die Warren -kommissie, is in Julie 1972 oorlede, een maand na die inhegtenisneming van Watergate. Boggs en twee ander mans het verdwyn toe die ligte vliegtuig waarin hulle gevlieg het, in Alaska neergestort het. The Los Angeles Star, op 22 November 1973, berig dat "Boggs onthutsende onthullings oor Watergate en die moord op president Kennedy gehad het." Richard Nixon het 'n paar onverstaanbare opmerkings gemaak oor die kongreslid Boggs wat op die band van die Withuis opgeneem is, slegs sewe dae na die inbraak van Watergate.

7. Dorothy Hunt, die vrou van die veroordeelde "loodgieter" van die Withuis E. Howard Hunt, is saam met 41 ander mense dood toe United Airlines Flight 553 op 8 Desember 1972 naby Chicago se Midway -lughawe neergestort het. net soos haar man vir die CIA gewerk het, het sy na bewering $ 100 000 se geld gedra, sodat haar man nie die Withuis -amptenare in Watergate sou betrek nie. Die dag na die ongeluk is Egil (Bud) Krogh, hulpverlener van die Withuis, aangestel as die sekretaris van vervoer, onder toesig van die National Transportation Safety Board en die Federal Aviation Association - die twee agentskappe wat ondersoek is na die ongeluk van die lugredery. 'N Week later is Nixon se adjunk -assistent Alexander Butterfield die nuwe hoof van die FAA, en vyf weke later is Dwight Chapin, die sekretaris van die president se aanstelling, na Chicago gestuur om 'n topbestuurder by United Airlines te word.

Die vliegtuigongeluk is toegeskryf aan foute in die toerusting.

8. en 9. Ralph Blodgett en James Krueger, prokureurs van Northern Natural Gas Co., is in dieselfde vliegtuig as mev. Hunt dood. Die twee mans, meen juffrou Brussell, het dokumente wat John Mitchell, prokureur-generaal, met Watergate verbind, en dokumente van 'n geheime oordrag van El Paso Natural Gas Co. . Die geld uit hierdie aandele is moontlik vir politieke spioenasie gebruik. Blodgett het aan vriende gesê voordat hy die vliegtuig in Washington bestyg het dat hy 'nooit sal lewe om na Chicago te kom nie'.

10. en 11. Dr. en mev Gary Morris sterf in Maart 1972 toe hul boot geheimsinnig van die Karibiese eiland St. Lucia verdwyn. Hul lyke is nooit gevind nie. Maar hulle name was op die lyk van mev. Dorothy Hunt, volgens 'n artikel in die Washington Post op 3 Oktober 1975. "Die vliegtuigongeluk wat mev. Hunt in Chicago doodgemaak het, is nou amptelik as 'n ongeluk beskou," lui die verhaal. 'Maar daar is 'n bisarre toeval wat nooit verklaar kan word nie.' Op haar rooi beursie ten tyde van haar dood was 'n papiertjie waarop die naam van 'n Washington -psigiater, dr. Gary Morris, was. 'Nie Howard Hunt of sy vrou nie. was pasiënte van die dokter, wat reeds tydens die vliegtuigongeluk dood was. Dit is interessant om op te let, sê Mae Brussell, dat dr. Morris 'n kenner van hipnose was en dat mnr Hunt 'verstandsbeheer' in sy spioenasie gebruik het werk.

12. J. Edgar Hoover, hoof van die FBI, is op 1 Mei 1972 oorlede, 'n maand voor Watergate. Daar is aansienlike bewyse dat hy moontlik geweet het van die "vuil truuks" van die Withuis. In 'n artikel in die Harvard Crimson word Felipe De Diego, 'n Kubaanse balling wat aan die inbraak by die sielkundige Daniel Ellsberg se kantoor deelgeneem het, gesê:

"Twee inbrake het by die huis van Hoover in Washington plaasgevind. Die eerste was in die winter van 1972 om dokumente op te haal wat moontlik vir afpersing teen die Withuis gebruik kan word." Na die eerste inbraak, volgens Diego, "is 'n tweede inbraak uitgevoer ; hierdie keer, hetsy deur ontwerp of misverstand, is 'n gif, tijonfosfaatgenre, in die persoonlike toiletartikels van Hoover geplaas. Hoover is kort daarna dood. "Thyonfosfaat -genre is 'n middel wat hartaanvalle veroorsaak. Die teenwoordigheid daarvan in 'n lyk is onopspoorbaar sonder 'n lykskouing. Geen lykskouing is ooit op die liggaam van J. Edgar Hoover uitgevoer nie.

13. Sam Giancana, die hoof van die maffia, is op 22 Junie 1975 vermoor, terwyl hy op die punt was om te getuig voor die senaatskomitee van die Sen. Frank -kerk, wat ondersoek instel na die gebruik van onderwereldsyfers deur die CIA, met die doel om buitelandse leiers te vermoor. Giancana het bande met E. Howard Hunt en die CIA gehad. Sy moord is onopgelos, hoewel die polisie sê "dit het nie soos 'n Mafia -treffer gelyk nie." Sy voormalige vriendin, Judith Campbell Exner, het onlangs haar geheime romanse met JFK onthul.

14. Lyndon Baines Johnson, die voormalige president, is op 20 Januarie 1973 in 'n helikopter -ambulans op pad na San Antonio, Texas, oorlede. Drie maande voor sy dood word Johnson in die San Francisco Chronicle aangehaal: "Ons het 'n verdomde Murder Inc. in die Karibiese Eilande bedryf." Dit was twee jaar voordat die senaatskomitee die planne onthul het om buitelandse leiers te vermoor. 'Toevallig', sê Mae Brussell, 'is Johnson dood in die arms van 'n geheime diensagent Mike Howard, wat in 1963 die opdrag gekry het om Marina Oswald te beskerm nadat haar man vermoor is.'

15. George Bell, assistent van Charles Colson, spesiale advokaat van die Withuis, is op 30 Junie 1973 aan onaangemelde oorsake oorlede. Toe Colson ondervra is oor president Nixon se berugte "vyandelys", het Colson aan die House Subcommissie Investigating Watergate gesê dat wyle George Bell "was verantwoordelik vir die lys van 200 bekendes en politici wat die president as gevaarlik beskou het.

16. Lee Pennington, jr., 'N CIA -agent, is in Oktober 1974 aan 'n oënskynlike hartaanval oorlede. Onmiddellik nadat die Watergate twee jaar tevore gearresteer is, is hy gestuur om die inbreker James McCord se huis te gaan ransak. Richard Helms, destyds die CIA -hoof, het hierdie feit nie aan enige ondersoekers bekend gemaak nie. Eers op 28 Junie 1974, vier maande voor Pennington se dood, het die nuwe CIA -direkteur, William Colby, aan sen.Howard Baker gerapporteer: "Die resultate van ons ondersoek toon duidelik aan dat die CIA reeds in besit was Junie 1972, inligting dat een van sy betaalde werkers, Lee R. Pennington, Jr., kort na die inbraak in Watergate die James McCord-woning binnegekom het en dokumente vernietig het wat 'n verband tussen McCord en die CIA kan aantoon. "

17. Clifford Dieterich, 'n 28-jarige geheime diensagent by Nixon, is dood toe die president se helikopter in Mei 1973 van die Bahamas af neergestort het. Dieterich was een van sewe mans in die helikopter, maar die enigste een wat dood is. Juffrou Brussell meen dat hy moontlik te veel by die bewaking van Richard Nixon geleer het.

18. Clay Shaw, wat jare tevore vrygespreek is van sameswering om John F. Kennedy dood te maak, is op 16 Augustus 1974 aan 'n hartaanval oorlede. Sy dood kom enkele weke nadat Victor Marchetti, skrywer van "The Cult of Intelligence" onthul dat Shaw vir die CIA gewerk het. Hy was in 1963 in Mexiko op dieselfde tyd as die CIA -agent E. Howard Hunt en Lee Harvey Oswald. Shaw is veras. Daar was geen lykskouing nie.

19. Merle D. Baumgart, 'n medepligtige van rep. Peter Rodino van die House Judiciary Committee on Impeachment, is op 20 Mei 1975 in 'n verkeersongeluk dood. Die polisie in Washington beskryf sy dood as ''n gewone verkeersongeluk' - totdat hulle ontvang het 'n anonieme oproep om 'daarna te kyk'. Volgens die Portland Oregonian van 30 Junie 1975 het Amerikaanse agente by die ondersoek aangesluit, maar dit geheim gehou as gevolg van die 'gestalte van sommige individue wat betrokke kan wees'. Juffrou Brussell bespiegel dat Baumgart tydens sy werk om Nixon te beskuldig, gevaarlike inligting teëgekom het.

20. Nikos J. Vardinoyiannis, 'n Griekse skeepseienaar wat geld bygedra het tot die presidensiële veldtog van Nixon, is in 1973 aan onbekende oorsake oorlede. Watergate -aanklaer, Leon Jaworski, ondersoek Vardinoyiannis toe die departement van justisie verklaar dat die Griek se bydrae van $ 27 000 nie onwettig was nie. Die departement het tot hierdie gevolgtrekking gekom, sê Mae Brussell, alhoewel die bydrae gemaak is nadat een van Vardinoyiannis se ondernemings 'n kontrak gekry het om brandstof vir die Amerikaanse 6de vloot te verskaf, en selfs al het die federale wet buitelandse kontrakteurs belet om by te dra tot Amerikaanse politieke veldtogte.

21. Joseph Tomassi, die 24-jarige hoof van die American Nazi Party in Kalifornië, is op 15 Augustus 1975 op die voorste trappe van sy hoofkwartier in Los Angeles doodgeskiet. Twee jaar tevore het die Los Angeles Times berig dat "die komitee vir herverkiesing van die president het $ 10,000 in onbekende fondse gegee om 'n sluipende veldtog te finansier om George Wallace se Amerikaanse onafhanklike party uit die stembrief in Kalifornië in 1972 te verwyder." The Times het verder gesê dat "$ 1,200 van die fonds sy weg gevind het na Joe Tomassi, hoof van die Nazi Party in Kalifornië."

22. Louise Boyer, 30 jaar lank assistent van Nelson Rockefeller, sterf op 3 Julie 1974 uit 'n 10de verdieping woonstel in New York. Rockefeller is destyds as gevolg van Watergate oorweeg vir die vise-presidentskap. Beskuldigings is gemaak dat hy betrokke was by die onwettige verwydering van goud uit Ft. Knox. Daar word geglo dat mev. Boyer die ondersoekers van hierdie inligting voorsien het.

23. Jose Joaquin Sangenis Perdimo, 'n Kubaanse ballingskap wat saam met die CIA by die Bay of Pigs gewerk het, is op geheimsinnige wyse in 1974 oorlede. In 1972 ontvang hy 'n geheime meriete -medalje deur die CIA.

24. Rolando Masferrer, nog 'n Kubaanse ballingskap wat deur die CIA in diens geneem is, is flenters geblaas toe sy motor op 5 Oktober 1975 ontplof het. Masferrer het saam met "loodgieters" Hunt, Sturgis en Barker gewerk. Volgens juffrou Brussell, "sou hy ondersoek gewees het vir sy aktiwiteite in verband met sluipmoordpogings op buitelandse leiers, as hy nie vermoor is nie."

25. Lou Russell, 'n ou vriend van Nixon uit die "Red Scare" -dae, is op 31 Julie 1973 aan natuurlike oorsake oorlede. In getuienis voor die Senaat se gekose komitee oor presidensiële veldtogaktiwiteite, het Nixon se sekretaris Rosemary Wood gesê: "Ek het Lou ontmoet Russell het 'n keer by die kantoor gekom. Russell het 'n goeie werk gekry, by 'McCord Associates', 'n CIA -frontman deur Watergater James McCord.

26. Jack Cleveland, 'n vennoot van die president se broer Donald Nixon, is in November 1973 in Kanada oorlede. Hy is destyds gevra vir ondervraging in verband met 'n moontlike uitbetaling van die regering aan Howard Hughes. Daar word vermoed dat Cleveland 'n tussenpersoon was in 'n ooreenkoms waardeur Nixon se broer belangstelling in 'n groot boerdery in Nevada verkry het, in ruil daarvoor dat die president die weg sou baan vir die miljardêr se oorname van Air West. "Toe Watergate uitmekaar kom," het mej Brussell gesê, "is hierdie ooreenkoms ondersoek."

27. Richard Lavoie, sekuriteitshoof van International Telegraph and Telephone, is op 27 Desember 1972 aan 'n hartaanval oorlede. Destyds het Lavoie wag gehou vir Ditta Beard, 'n ITT -sekretaris wat beweer het dat sy 'n memo het dat haar onderneming $ 400,000 bygedra het Nixon se veldtogfonds, sodat John Mitchell nie 'n deel van ITT se besittings sou opdoen nie. Toe die rubriekskrywer Jack Anderson hierdie verhaal vertel, is juffrou Beard van Washington na Denver, Colo, verplaas, waar sy in die hospitaal opgeneem is weens 'n skynbare hartaanval. Sy is weggeslinger, beweer Anderson, sodat sy nie kon getuig nie. Juffrou Brussell vermoed dat Lovoie moontlik te veel van Dita Beard gehoor het.

28. Andrew Topping, die vrou van 'n man wat gearresteer is omdat hy beplan het om Nixon dood te maak, is op 6 April 1972 aan skietwonde dood, twee weke na die inbraak in Watergate. Haar dood is tot selfmoord verklaar. Andrew Topping het aan die polisie gesê dat 'pro-regse magte' buite sy beheer sy vrou se dood veroorsaak het.

29. James Morton was president Gerald Ford se veldtogtesourier. According to a New York Times report of November 2, 1973, Ford was being questioned by a senate committee prior to his appointment as vice president, and was asked about a secret sum of $38,000 used in his campaign for the House of Representatives. The Times story stated, "Ford confirmed under questioning that a committee organized in Washington raised $38,216 for his re-election in 1972... but Ford said he did not know the names of the donors because the committee treasurer, James G. Morton is now dead." Like so much of the Watergate money, Miss Brussell notes, no records were kept.

30. Martha Mitchell, estranged wife of the former attorney general, died on Memorial Day, 1976. A constant "pain in the side" of the Watergate conspirators, she was the first person to point the finger at Richard Nixon and suggest he resign.


Interview with Lee R. Nunn, May 26, 1984

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Nunn, Lee R. Interview by Richard C. Smoot. 26 May. 1984. Lexington, KY: Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries.

Nunn, L.R. (1984, May 26). Interview by R. C. Smoot. John Sherman Cooper Oral History Project. Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries, Lexington.

Nunn, Lee R., interview by Richard C. Smoot. May 26, 1984, John Sherman Cooper Oral History Project, Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries.

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Robert Lee "R.L." Pennington | 1947 - 2017 | Obituary

Robert Lee Pennington, affectionately known as "R.L.", "Soul", and "Uncle Kemo", was born on July 15, 1947, in Vernon, AL to Ervin Bert and Irene Pennington. He was the eldest of eight children. He passed this life to rest October 7, 2017, in Vernon, AL.

Robert gave his life to Christ and was a faithful member and song leader to the West Side Church of Christ since 1996. He graduated from Todd High School, where he moved to Michigan and was employed by Pontiac Motors. After a few years, he moved back home to Vernon, AL, where he was then employed at Arvin Automotive in Fayette, AL. There, he worked as a forklift driver and retired after 36 years. During this time, he was married to Martha Faye Walker for 27 years, and to their union, four children were born. He was preceded in death by his son, Eric Keon Pennington, and his parents, Ervin Bert and Irene Pennington.

Funeral services will be Saturday, October 14, at 1:00 in the chapel of Chandler Funeral Home with Delmar Garrison officiating. Burial will follow at Furnace Hill. The wake will be Saturday 12:00-1:00 prior to the service.

Active pallbearers will be Landon Williams, Vinny Pennington, Anthony Downs, Jerome Coleman, Audie Williams, Eddie Walker, and James Nalls, Jr. Honorary pallbearers will be Marvin Pennington, Craig Pennington, Erwin Pennington, Don Pennington, Willie Walker, Jr., and William Earl Dorrough.

Robert leaves to continue his legacy, his children, Tonya Denise Pennington of Vernon, AL, Rodney Lee Pennington of Vernon, AL, and Valerie Chauntay Pennington of Vernon, AL his grandchildren, Landon Keon Pennington, Ricole Denise Pennington, and Reagan Savannah Prowell one great-grandchild, Kynzley Morgan William four brothers, Marvin (Beverly) Pennington of Tupelo, MS, Craig (Linda) Pennington of Huntsville, AL, Ervin Pennington of Birmingham, AL, and Don (Dedra) Pennington of Birmingham, AL three sisters, Lillie Ivy of Madison, AL, Evelyn (William Earl) Dorrough of Elkmont, AL, and Lisa (Kelvin) Harris of Florence, AL one aunt, Lillie (Lewis) Cribbs of Mt. Clemons, MI one uncle, James (Dorothy) Hooper of Mt. Clemons, MI and a host of nieces, nephews, and cousins.


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Lee R. Pennington - History

Foreword to The Antiquities Act of 1906,
2001 Electronic Edition
Francis P. McManamon
Chief Archeologist NPS
Departmental Consulting Archeologist, DOI
January, 2001

The Archeology Program, National Park Service, is very pleased to make available in an electronic format Ronald F. Lee's history of the Antiquities Act. This law serves as the foundation of much of United States law for the commemoration, preservation, and protection of cultural resources. Thus, it has very important links to the modern practice of American archeology, cultural resource management, and historic preservation.

Lee's history, originally published by the National Park Service in 1970, has for decades been available only as faintly reproduced copies. Recently, Raymond Harris Thompson and the Journal of the Southwest (Volume 42, Number 2, Summer 2000) produced a print version that updates Lee's text to incorporate information unavailable to Lee. Thompson also, provides a short biography of Lee and an essay on the activities and political process that led to the final enactment of the Antiquities Act, in particular the essential role played by Edgar Lee Hewett in that final, successful effort. Thompson's updating and additional articles are recommended to all.

The 2001 edition presented here is an electronic version of Lee's history. We hope by providing the history in this format, it will be even more widely available and used. We have made a few corrections to the 1970 text, based mainly by recommendations provided by Ray Thompson for which we are very grateful. Frederic W. Putnam's first name is now correctly spelled, not Frederick, as in the original. In Chapter I, the first visit to Pecos by Spanish explorers is given as 1540, not 1544 as in the original. In Chapter II, we have incorporated changes made by Thompson updating information about Bandelier meeting Charnay during a trip to Mexico in 1881. In Chapter VI, the spelling of Monuments megalithiques has been corrected the reference to Squier and Davis as "Englishmen" removed and the incorrect reference to Hewett's education in Hannibal, Missouri, has been removed. We have converted Lee's original footnotes to endnotes and in endnote 25 have included Thompson's reference to Lange and Riley (1996) along with Lee's original citation.

Presentation of this 2001 electronic edition of The Antiquities Act of 1906 by Ronald F. Lee has been made possible by various efforts undertaken and support provided over a period of several years by: Robert Grumet, Lloyd Chapman, Kathleen Browning, Terry Childs, Matt Burns, David Andrews, Brooke Blades, Ray Thompson, Liz Johnson, and Bruce Babbitt. My special thanks to each of them for their cooperation and effort.

CRM Online
Learn about the historic and present-day importance of the Antiquities Act through a series of articles in CRM Online (1996):
90 Years of Archeology and Historic Preservation McManamon, Francis P.
In Defense of Digging Archeological Preservation as a Means, Not an End Lipe, William D.
The Antiquities Act Regulating Salvage of Historic Shipwrecks Zander, Caroline M.
The Antiquities Act Setting Basic Preservation Policies McManamon, Francis P.

[Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view the articles in PDF format. Download information.]

Foreword to the 2001 Electronic Version
Francis P. McManamon


Cancer and radiation therapy: current advances and future directions

In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division) potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed.

Sleutelwoorde: Cancer Cell death. Linear energy transfer Radiation therapy.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


What Robert E. Lee Wrote to The Times About Slavery in 1858

One day in January, a few years before the Civil War, Robert E. Lee wrote to The New York Times, seeking a correction.

The man who would become the top Confederate general was trying to set the record straight about the slaves on his wife’s estate in Virginia, and about the last wishes of a dying slave owner.

He wrote that the people enslaved on his family’s property, in what was then known as Alexandria County, were not “being sold South,” as had been reported. And he implied that he would free them within five years.

The letter is one of many written by Lee that sheds slivers of light on his thoughts about slavery. Historians have clashed — and are clashing still — over the strength of his support for the system of forced labor that kept millions of people in bondage for generations.

Now that statues of Lee and other Confederate leaders are the focus of an intensely heated national debate, the issue is an especially pertinent one.

“He was not a pro-slavery ideologue,” Eric Foner, a Civil War historian, author and professor of history at Columbia University, said of Lee. “But I think equally important is that, unlike some white southerners, he never spoke out against slavery.”

When Lee wrote his letter to The Times, he was an accomplished United States Army officer acting as the executor of his father-in-law’s will. His wife, Mary Anna Custis Lee, a descendant of Martha Washington, had recently inherited her father’s estate, Arlington House, along with the slaves who lived there.

In his will, Ms. Lee’s father, George Washington Parke Custis, said his slaves should be freed five years after his death.

But an article that was first published by The Boston Traveller and reprinted in The Times on Dec. 30, 1857, contended that the slaves “will be consigned to hopeless Slavery unless something can be done” because Mr. Custis’s heirs did not want to free them.

Beeld

It also said that Mr. Custis, while dying, told his slaves that they should be freed immediately, rather than five years on.

Lee challenged that account. In his letter to The Times, he said that “there is no desire on the part of the heirs to prevent the execution” of the will. And he said Mr. Custis, who was “constantly attended” by family members during his final days, had never been heard granting immediate freedom to his slaves.

The Times published Lee’s letter on Jan. 8, 1858, (though the letter itself, written shortly after New Year’s, appears to be mistakenly dated 1857) and said it was “glad” to be corrected on the matter.

The war came three years later.

Lee joined the secessionists in April 1861. He left Arlington House, and the estate was eventually overtaken by Union soldiers. (The dead were buried in its grounds, which would later become the site of Arlington National Cemetery.) Over the course of the conflict, many slaves were hired out or escaped the property.

In 1862, in accordance with Mr. Custis’s will, Lee filed a deed of manumission to free the slaves at Arlington House and at two more plantations Mr. Custis had owned, individually naming more than 150 of them. And in January 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that all people held as slaves in the rebelling states “are, and henceforward shall be free.”

Of all the letters by Lee that have been collected by archivists and historians over the years, one of the most famous was written to his wife in 1856. “In this enlightened age, there are few I believe, but what will acknowledge, that slavery as an institution, is a moral & political evil in any Country,” he wrote.

But he added that slavery was “a greater evil to the white man than to the black race” in the United States, and that the “painful discipline they are undergoing, is necessary for their instruction.”

The 1857 article in The Times noted that slaves’ own voices were missing from the story of Mr. Custis’s dying wishes. It said that when he told his slaves they would be freed, “no white man was in the room, and the testimony of negroes will not be taken in Court.”

But years later, in 1866, one former slave at Arlington House, Wesley Norris, gave his testimony to the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Mr. Norris said that he and others at Arlington were indeed told by Mr. Custis they would be freed upon his death, but that Lee had told them to stay for five more years.

So Mr. Norris said he, a sister and a cousin tried to escape in 1859, but were caught. “We were tied firmly to posts by a Mr. Gwin, our overseer, who was ordered by Gen. Lee to strip us to the waist and give us fifty lashes each, excepting my sister, who received but twenty,” he said.

And when the overseer declined to wield the lash, a constable stepped up, Mr. Norris said. He added that Lee had told the constable to “lay it on well.”

Dr. Foner said that after the war, Lee did not support rights for black citizens, such as the right to vote, and was largely silent about violence perpetrated by white supremacists during Reconstruction.

The general did, however, object to the idea of raising Confederate monuments, writing in 1869 that it would be wiser “not to keep open the sores of war but to follow the examples of those nations who endeavored to obliterate the marks of civil strife.”


Lee R. Pennington, Family Neighbor.

Robalini's Note: Lee Penington was the next door neighbor of my mom's family when she grew up in Chevy Chase, Maryland. Here is a little biography of him found on the Internet, courtesy of Uncle Fats.

Lee R. Pennington was a senior FBI agent who worked closely with J. Edgar Hoover. He claimed to have "70,000 confidential contacts" throughout the United States. Pennington, who specialized in identifying left-wing activists, supplied a great deal of information to the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HCUA). It was during this period that he met Lou Russell and James W. McCord.

By the time Pennington retired from the FBI in 1953 he was the third highest rankin agent in the organization. He then went to work compiling files on domestic "subversives" for the American Legion's National Americanism Commission". Later he became director of the Washington office of the right-wing group, the American Security Council.

Pennington also worked for the CIA who paid him $250 a month by "sterile" check, which could not be traced back to the government. It was such a secret relationship that even the director of the CIA was not informed about it. According to David Wise (The American Police State): "once a month Pennington would report to his case officer, Louis W. Vasaly at the Burgundy Room, a restaurant in Chevy Chase." Over a fifteen year period Pennington also provided information to Paul Gaynor, the chief of CIA's Security Research Staff (CRS) and Howard Osborn, director of the Office of Security.

Pennington continued to keep in contact with James W. McCord. Pennington's secretary, Donald Sweany, a former staff member of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, married McCord's secretary, Lucille.

On 17th June, 1972, Frank Sturgis, Virgilio Gonzalez, Eugenio Martinez, Bernard L. Barker and James W. McCord were arrested while in the Democratic Party headquarters in Watergate. Two days later Pennington went to McCord's house where he met Donald and Lucille Sweany. While there he watched as the Sweanys and Ruth McCord destroyed a large number of documents linked to the Watergate break-in. Pennington later claimed he informed his CIA case officer, Louis W. Vasaly, about the burning of McCord's files.

The FBI received information that McCord's files had been destroyed by a former CIA agent called "Pennington". They also discovered that a man named Pennington had driven James W. McCord to his Rockville home following his release on bail. FBI agent, Donald L. Parham, asked the CIA to produce a report on Pennington.

According to the author, Jim Hougan Secret Agenda (1984): "The CIA's response to the FBI's inquiry was to give the bureau the name of a different Pennington - not Lee R., Jr., but Cecil H. The latter was a retired employee of the Office of Security. He had nothing whatsoever to do with the Watergate affair and had not, of course, driven McCord anywhere at any time. Grilled by the FBI for reasons that he could not comprehend, his alibi was quickly verified, with the result that the Pennington lead turned into a dead end for the bureau, just as the CIA had intended."

An unnamed CIA official told the Senate Committee chaired by Lucien Nedzi that: "He (Edward F. Saye) told me at the time. that Mr. Lee Pennington had entered Mr. McCord's office at home, destroying any indication of connections between the Agency and Mr. McCord." The head of the Security Research Staff said that "Pennington was too sensitive and the decision had been made to sacrifice Cecil Pennington instead".

In August, 1972, Richard Helms told Stephen L. Kuhn, the deputy director of the Office of Security, to "Remove the (Pennington) materials from the (Watergate) files and maintain them separately." This message was passed to another CIA officer who refused to comply with the order. He remarked to another officer that the "Agency did not need its own L. Patrick Gray". This was a reference to L. Patrick Gray, the director of the FBI who destroyed the documents in the White House safe of E. Howard Hunt. The two officers placed the Pennington materials in a sealed envelope and marked it for the director's "Eyes Only". In August, 1973, the new CIA director, William Colby, asked to see all files related to the Watergate Scandal. Kuhn instructed the CIA official given this responsibility to collect these documents together, that he was not to include the Pennington envelope in the materials given to Colby.

When interviewed by the Lucien Nedzi and his Senate Committee Richard Helms admitted that during the Watergate investigation he ordered the erasure of all tapes and transcripts of conversations secretly recorded in his office and the French Room (a conference room used by senior officials of the CIA). More than four thousand pages of recorded conversations over a six year period were destroyed.

Helms had been instructed by Mike Mansfield that all documents relating to Watergate had to be preserved. Helms told Nedzi that the destroyed materials had nothing to do with Watergate: "When I heard about tapes and destruction of Watergate-related tapes, the thing that immediately struck me was: "who knows what was on those tapes except me or my secretary? Who in the public can make an allegation that there were any tapes that were Watergate-related?" Lucien Nedzi replied: "The problem is. how can you prove they weren't Watergate-related."

In his book Secret Agenda, Jim Hougan alleges that Pennington was providing Lou Russell and James W. McCord with CIA reports on people like Jack Anderson that were being targeted by those involved in Operation Sandwedge. Hougan claims that "Lee R. Pennington was McCord's cut-out to the Security Research Staff."

William Colby was eventually given the Pennington file. On 28th June, 1974, he reported to Howard Baker: "The results of our investigation clearly show that the CIA had in its possession, as early as June, 1972, information that one of its paid operatives, Lee R. Pennington, Jr., had entered the James McCord residence shortly after the Watergate break-in and destroyed documents which might show a link between McCord and the CIA."


Lee R. Pennington - History

In this story about the &ldquoLEE&rdquo Brand Name, we will combine the history of both the Lee Jeans and the Jackets Products they manufactured since these products actually evolved from the work wear clothing line the Lee Company started with after its inception.

H.D. Lee Merchantile Co. opened in 1889 as a wholesale quality grocer and only later became a work wear manufacturer. In 1911, due to unreliable shipments from their suppliers, H.D. Lee Merchantile was prompted to produce their first line of work wear garments including the now famous vintage Lee Bib Overall. These overalls were made of 8 oz. denim and had a multifunctional breast pocket with a button fly . In 1926 Lee introduced slide fasteners on the bib overall straps to offer a better fit to the wearer. In 1913, H.D. Lee developed the &ldquocoverall&rdquo which combined the jacket with a bib overall being stitched together. With this, the Lee Union-All was created. This product, dubbed the &ldquoUnion-All&rdquo was commissioned by the U.S. Army and was the official fatigue uniform during World War I. Later the words &ldquoUNION MADE&rdquo were included with the Lee Brand Name on many of its labels.

In 1921, Lee introduced its&rsquo first &ldquoRailroad Jacket&rdquo. Designed specifically for railroad workers, it was named the Loco Jacket and its&rsquo detail features were actually tested by the railroad workers themselves. About the end of the 1920&rsquos Lee introduced the first denim jacket with a zipper closure known as the 91. This work wear line included the Lee 91 and Lee 191 series jacket. These work wear jackets could be identified by a house silhouette on the jacket tab, also noting the description &ldquoJelt Denim and Sanforized&rdquo. In addition to the name Lee on the label, the famous &ldquoUNION MADE&rdquo also appeared. So up to this time, Lee was famous for providing industrial clothing as well as garments for railroad workers. Lee continued to emphasize work wear specifically for certain types of &ldquoworker trades&rdquo. In addition to the earlier described railroad jacket, in 1927 Lee introduced the &ldquoLogger dungarees featuring wider hips, watch pockets and suspender buttons.

It was in 1922 that Lee first introduced the Buddy Lee Doll , a choice of many vintage collectors today. They proved so successful that dolls were created featuring many different outfits.

However, times were changing and in addition to their leadership in denim workwear, by the mid 1920&rsquos Lee recognized a greater need to supply western wear for cowboys and rodeo riders. In 1924, Lee introduced the Lee Cowboy Pants. The first Lee Cowboy pants were made in 13 oz. denim and were known as 101 jeans . These jeans, now part of the Lee &ldquoRiders&rdquo product line, did not carry that label until the mid 1940&rsquos. The word &ldquoRider&rdquo appeared from time to time, but it wasn&rsquot until the 1940&rsquos that the actual product range existed. In this model, Lee removed the back pocket rivets and in their place introduced bar tacking however rivets did remain on the crotch and front pockets. This early model of the 101 became known eventually as the 101B once H.D. Lee introduced the zipper version 101Z. In 1925, Lee introduced its exclusive fabric, Jelt Denim. It was 11.5 oz. denim but had the durability of 13 oz. denim due to its tight weave and twisted yarn.

As a side note, the zipper was invented in 1893 and perfected in 1913. It was originally called the Hookless fastener. In the 1920&rsquos and 30&rsquos, the Talon and Scovill companies were dominant in the expansion and use of zipper fasteners. It was also in the early 1930&rsquos that sanforization was perfected and was more widely used in the manufacture of denim products.

Sometime in the late 1920&rsquos or early 1930&rsquos, Lee manufactured its first bib overall made with a zipper and called the &ldquoLEE WHIZIT&rdquo. During this same period, Lee also added a zipper to their cowboy pants and hence the name 101Z. It was also during this same period that Lee introduced two new work wear fabrics, Hickory Striped Denim and Color Fast Herringbone twill. Due to this, Hickory Striped Denim became synonymous with work wear garments.

However in 1931, Lee introduced the famous Lee 101J (Jelt) denim jacket. It was a slim jacket that had inward slanting breast pockets and a wide waistband. This jacket was introduced with the cowboy in mind and they were to continue to be produced for several decades. The &ldquoSlim&rdquo Jacket was the first shorter, more tailored western-style jacket and was later to be included under the Rider Label. These jackets, like most early versions of Lee Western Wear Jacket had three versions of pocket tags and labels which can be used to determine the approximate time they were manufactured. The first had only the marking &ldquoLee&rdquo. The second used in the 1960&rsquos had the &ldquoLee ®&rdquo in the name. The Third version used since the 1970&rsquos had the &ldquoLee ® MR&rdquo in the name.

In 1933, Lee launched what was to become one of its most famous designs, the Storm Rider Jacket . It was a winter version of the &ldquoSlim&rdquo jacket Lee 101J which was launched in 1931 and it featured a blanket lining and corduroy collar. Early versions of the Storm Rider had embroidered labels but later became printed labels instead. These jackets had labels denoted as Lee 101LJ (Lined and Jelt) and Lee 101J (Jelt). Those manufactured since the 1970&rsquos had the ® MR next to the name.

In 1936, Lee introduced the &ldquoHair on Hide&rdquo label the Companies first leather label. The Lee logo was branded directly onto the cowhide.

It was in 1943 that the H.D. Lee Mercantile Co. became the H.D. Lee Inc. In was also in the 1940&rsquos that the &ldquoHair on Hide&rdquo label evolved into the &ldquoTwitch&rdquo or leather label we see on jeans today.

In 1949, Lee launched the Lady Lee Rider line, a womens wear counterpart to the already existing Rider Line.

In the 1950&rsquos, Lee introduced the Lee Westerner 100J with its white or colored twill and slimmer silhouette. The purpose was to give their customers something to wear on more &ldquodress up&rdquo occasions. These jackets carried a Model Number of 100J. Lee Westerner Jackets came in white, black, brown, blue and Khaki. When they were manufactured can be determined by the registered trademark on the label.

The Lee 109JY series was manufactured as part of the ongoing series of Lee 100 western wear jackets. The fabric used was of a lighter weight and the back of the jacket had no fasteners.


Kyk die video: Lee Pennington #zooathome S2E1 at The Zoo Project ibiza