Apkallu's Daggers, deur C

Apkallu's Daggers, deur C


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Rendell is gebore as Ruth Barbara Grasemann in 1930, in South Woodford, Essex (nou Greater London). [3] Haar ouers was onderwysers. Haar ma, Ebba Kruse, is in Swede gebore by Deense ouers en in Denemarke grootgemaak, haar vader, Arthur Grasemann, was Engels. As gevolg van die deurbring van Kersfees en ander vakansiedae in Skandinawië, het Rendell Sweeds en Deens geleer. [4] Rendell is opgevoed aan die County High School for Girls in Loughton, Essex, [3] die stad waarheen die gesin tydens haar kinderjare verhuis het.

Na die hoërskool word sy 'n rolprentskrywer vir haar plaaslike Essex -koerant, die Chigwell Times. Sy was egter genoodsaak om te bedank nadat sy 'n verhaal oor 'n plaaslike sportklub-ete wat sy nie bygewoon het nie, ingedien het en versuim het om te meld dat die spreker na die ete halfpad tydens die toespraak oorlede is. [5]

Rendell het haar man, Don Rendell, ontmoet toe sy as nuusskrywer gewerk het. [3] Hulle trou toe sy 20 was, en het in 1953 'n seun, Simon, [6] gehad, nou 'n psigiatriese maatskaplike werker wat in die Amerikaanse deelstaat Colorado woon. Die egpaar skei in 1975, maar trou twee jaar later weer. [7] Don Rendell sterf in 1999 aan prostaatkanker. [6]

Sy is aangestel as 'n bevelvoerder in die Orde van die Britse Ryk (CBE) in die 1996 Birthday Honours [8] en 'n lewensmaat as Barones Rendell van Babergh, van Aldeburgh in die County Suffolk, op 24 Oktober 1997. [9] Sy het in die House of Lords vir die Labour Party gesit. In 1998 is Rendell aangewys in 'n lys van die party se grootste private finansiële donateurs. [10] Sy het die wetsontwerp in die Lords ingedien wat later die Wet op die genitale verminking van vroue 2003 sou word.

In Augustus 2014 was Rendell een van 200 openbare persone wat 'n brief onderteken het aan Die voog hul hoop uitgespreek dat Skotland sou stem om deel te bly van die Verenigde Koninkryk tydens die referendum in September oor die kwessie. [11]

Baroness Rendell se toekennings sluit in die Silver, Gold en Cartier Diamond Daggers van die Crime Writers 'Association, drie Edgars van die Mystery Writers of America, The Arts Council National Book Awards en The Sunday Times Literary Award. [2] 'n Aantal van haar werke (sien die afdeling hieronder) is aangepas vir film of televisie. [12] [13] Sy was ook 'n beskermheer van die liefdadigheidsorganisasie Kids for Kids [14] wat kinders in die landelike gebiede van Darfoer help. Daar is 'n blou gedenkplaat op een van haar huise, 45 Millsmead Way, in Loughton. Dit is onthul deur haar seun Simon op 24 Februarie 2016. [15]

Rendell het op 7 Januarie 2015 [16] 'n beroerte gehad en is op 2 Mei 2015 oorlede. [17]

Rendell het twee ongepubliseerde romans geskryf voor die publikasie van 1964 Van Doon met die dood, wat vir £ 75 deur John Long gekoop is, was dit die eerste raaisel met hoofinspekteur Reginald Wexford. Rendell het gesê dat die karakter van Wexford op haarself gebaseer was. [18] Die monster in die boks, wat in Oktober 2009 vrygestel is, word algemeen voorgestel dat dit die laaste saak van Wexford is. [19] Dit was egter verkeerd, dit was die laaste roman met Wexford as 'n polisieman: in die daaropvolgende roman, Die kluis, het hy afgetree. [20]

Benewens hierdie polisieprosedures met Wexford in die hoofrol, het Rendell sielkundige misdaadromans geskryf waarin temas soos romantiese obsessie, verkeerde kommunikasie, die impak van toeval en toeval en die menslikheid van die betrokke misdadigers ondersoek word. Onder sulke boeke is 'N Oordeel in klip, Die gesig van oortreding, Live Vlees, Praat met Strange Men, Die moordende pop, Gaan verkeerd en Adam en Eva en knyp my. Vir die laaste roman wat in haar leeftyd gepubliseer is, Die meisie langsaan, keer sy terug na die Loughton van haar kinderjare, met 'n geïmpliseerde vergelyking van die morele klimaat van Engeland en 2014 in die oorlog.

Rendell het 'n derde skryfstuk gemaak met die publikasie in 1986 van 'N Donker aangepaste oog onder haar skuilnaam Barbara Vine (die naam is afgelei van haar eie middelnaam en haar ouma se nooiensvan). [4] Koning Salomo se tapyt, 'N Dodelike omkering en Asta se boek (alternatiewe Amerikaanse titel, Anna se boek) het onder meer dieselfde gebied bewoon as haar sielkundige misdaadromans terwyl sy temas van menslike misverstande en die onbedoelde gevolge van gesinsgeheime en verborge misdade verder ontwikkel het. Die skrywer is bekend vir haar elegante prosa en skerp insig in die menslike verstand, sowel as haar treffende plotte en karakters. Rendell het die sosiale veranderinge van die afgelope 40 jaar in haar werk ingebring en bewustheid van sake soos gesinsgeweld gemaak. [21]

Die Inspector Wexford -reeks is suksesvol op televisie uitgesaai, met George Baker as inspekteur Wexford en Christopher Ravenscroft as speurder Mike Burden, onder die titel Die geheimenisse van Ruth Rendell, met 48 episodes van 1987 tot 2000. Rendell het Baker se optrede geprys en gesê: "Dit was 'n wonderlike prestasie as akteur om hom meer en beter te maak as wat die skrywer bedoel het." [18] Baie van haar ander werke is aangepas vir film en televisie. Sy het gesê dat Chabrol se 1995 weergawe van 'N Oordeel in klip, La Cérémonie met Sandrine Bonnaire, was een van die min filmverwerkings van haar werk waarmee sy tevrede was. Die roman is ook in 1986 saam met Rita Tushingham verfilm. [22] Chabrol gemaak La Demoiselle d'honneur in 2004, gebaseer op Die strooimeisie.

Ander aanpassings is Dagboek van die dooies (1976), uit die boek Een daaroor, twee af die 1997 Pedro Almodóvar film Live Vlees [23] Die Boom van Hande, geregisseer deur Giles Foster vir Granada met Lauren Bacall (Amerikaanse titel: "Innocent Victim") en 'n ander weergawe van Die Boom van Hande, Betty Fisher en outres histoires (2001, ook bekend as Alias ​​Betty), met draaiboek en regie deur Claude Miller. Francois Ozon se film van 2015 Die nuwe vriendin was gebaseer op die gelyknamige kortverhaal van Rendell. [24] Twee episodes van Tales of the Unnexpected was gebaseer op Rendell se kortverhale.

  • 1975 - Mystery Writers of America Beste kortverhaal Edgar: Die Gevalle Gordyn
  • 1976 - Goue dolk vir fiksie: 'N Demoon in my siening
  • 1979 - Mystery Writers of America Edgar Award (kortlys): 'N Slaapplek
  • 1980 - Mystery Writers of America Edgar Award (kortlys): Laat die dood my liefhê
  • 1980 - Martin Beck -toekenning: Laat die dood my liefhê
  • 1981 - Arts Council National Book Award for Genre Fiction: Die meer van die duisternis
  • 1984 - Silwer dolk vir fiksie: Die Boom van Hande
  • 1984 - Mystery Writers of America Beste kortverhaal Edgar: Die nuwe vriendin
  • 1986 - Goue dolk vir fiksie: Live Vlees
  • 1986 - Mystery Writers of America Edgar Award (kortlys): Die Boom van Hande
  • 1986 - Mystery Writers of America Edgar Award (kortlys): 'N Onvriendelikheid van kraaie
  • 1987 - Mystery Writers of America Edgar -toekenning: 'N Donker aangepaste oog
  • 1987 - Goue dolk vir fiksie: 'N Dodelike omkering
  • 1988 - Angel -toekenning vir fiksie: Die Trappehuis
  • 1990 – Sunday Times Toekenning vir literêre uitnemendheid
  • 1991 - Goue dolk vir fiksie: Koning Salomo se tapyt
  • 1991 - Cartier Diamond Dagger vir 'n lewenslange prestasie in die veld
  • 1996 - Bevelvoerder in die Orde van die Britse Ryk (CBE)
  • 1997 - Mystery Writers of America Grand Master Award
  • 1997 - Life Peer as barones Rendell van Babergh
  • 2004 - Mystery Ink Gumshoe -toekenning vir lewenslange prestasie
  • 2005 - CWADagger of Daggers (beste misdaadroman wat die Gold Dagger -toekenning (kortlys) gewen het): 'N Dodelike omkering
  • 2007 - Gumshoe -toekenning vir beste Europese misdaadroman (kortlys): Die Minotaurus
  • 2007 - Theakston se Old Peculier Crime Novel of the Year -toekenning (langlys): Eindig in trane
  • 2010 - Lost Man Booker -prys (langlys): [25]'N Skuldige ding verbaas

Inspekteur Wexford -reeks Redigeer

  1. Van Doon met die dood (1964)
  2. 'N Nuwe huurooreenkoms (1967) (Amerikaanse titel: Die sondes van die vaders)
  3. Wolf ter slagting (1967)
  4. Die beste man om te sterf (1969)
  5. 'N Skuldige ding verbaas (1970)
  6. No More Dying Dan (1971)
  7. Moord is eens klaar (1972)
  8. Sommige lieg en sommige sterf (1973)
  9. Skud hande vir ewig (1975)
  10. 'N Slaapplek (1979)
  11. Aangesit deur Cunning (1981) (Amerikaanse titel: Doodsnotas)
  12. Die Speaker van Mandaryns (1983)
  13. 'N Onvriendelikheid van kraaie (1985)
  14. Die Veiled One (1988)
  15. Soen die skutter se dogter (1991)
  16. Simisola (1994)
  17. Padwoede (1997)
  18. Skade gedoen (1999)
  19. Die Babas in the Wood (2002)
  20. Eindig in trane (2005)
  21. Nie in die vlees nie (2007)
  22. Die monster in die boks (2009)
  23. Die kluis (2011)
  24. No Man's Nightingale (2013)

Selfstandige romans Redigeer

  • Om 'n geverfde duiwel te vrees (1965)
  • Vanity sterf hard (1965) (Amerikaanse titel: In siekte en in gesondheid)
  • Die geheime huis van die dood (1968)
  • Een daaroor, twee af (1971)
  • Die gesig van oortreding (1974)
  • 'N Demoon in my siening (1976)
  • 'N Oordeel in klip (1977)
  • Laat die dood my liefhê (1979)
  • Die meer van die duisternis (1980)
  • Meester van die Moor (1982)
  • Die moordende pop (1984)
  • Die Boom van Hande (1984)
  • Live Vlees (1986)
  • Praat met Strange Men (1987)
  • Die strooimeisie (1989)
  • Gaan verkeerd (1990)
  • Die Krokodilvoël (1993)
  • Die sleutels na die straat (1996)
  • 'N Gesig vir seer oë (1998)
  • Adam en Eva en knyp my (2001)
  • Die Rottweiler (2003)
  • Dertien trappe af (2004)
  • Die water is heerlik (2006)
  • Portobello (2008)
  • Tigerlily se orgideë (2010)
  • Die Saint Zita Society (2012)
  • Die meisie langsaan (2014)
  • Donker hoeke (2015)

Novellas wysig

  • Thornapple (1982). [27] Versamel in Die Koorsboom
  • Hartstene (1987). Ongehaal
  • Die dief (2006). Versamel in 'N Plek van dwaasheid

Geskryf as Barbara Vine Edit

  • 'N Donker aangepaste oog (1986)
  • 'N Dodelike omkering (1987)
  • Die Trappehuis (1988)
  • Gallowglass (1990)
  • Koning Salomo se tapyt (1991)
  • Asta se boek (1993) (Amerikaanse titel: Anna se boek)
  • Geen nag is te lank nie (1994)
  • Die swawel troue (1995)
  • Die skoorsteenveër se seuntjie (1998)
  • Sprinkaan (2000)
  • Die Bloeddokter (2002)
  • Die Minotaurus (2005)
  • Die verjaarsdaggeskenk (2008)
  • Die kind se kind (2012)

Kortverhaalbundels Wysig

  • Die Gevalle Gordyn (1976)
  • Middele vir die bose en ander verhale (1979) (vyf inspekteur Wexford -verhale)
  • Die Koorsboom (1982)
  • Die nuwe vriendin (1985)
  • Die koper pou (1991)
  • Bloedlyne (1995)
  • Piranha na Scurfy (2000)
  • Versamelde kortverhale, Deel 1 (2006)
  • Versamelde kortverhale, Deel 2 (2008)
  • 'N Plek van dwaasheid (2017)

Ongesamelde kortverhale Redigeer

  • "The Martyr", opgeneem in Midsummer Nights (red Jeanette Winterson), Quercus, 2009
  • "Paradise", in The Strand Magazine #11, 2003

Ongesamelde round-robin-kortverhale waaraan Rendell 'n bydraer was Edit

  • "Death in the Square", saam met Peter Levi, Roald Dahl en Ted Willis, Daily Telegraph, 1988
  • "Web of Intrigue", saam met die publiek geskryf. Daily Telegraph, 1997

Nie-fiksie Redigeer

  • Ruth Rendell se Suffolk (1989)
  • Ondermyn die sentrale lyn: gee die regering terug aan die mense (met Colin Ward, 1989) 'n politieke traktaat
  • Die rede waarom: 'n bloemlesing van die moorddadige gees (1995)

Kinderboeke Redigeer

  1. ^ Alison Flood (1 Maart 2013). "Ruth Rendell: 'n lewe in skryf". Die voog . Besoek op 1 Maart 2013.
  2. ^ ab The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Sesde uitgawe. Ed. deur Margaret Drabble. Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 847. 0-19-866244-0.
  3. ^ abc
  4. "Ruth Rendell, misdaadskrywer - doodsberig". 2 Mei 2015. Ontsluit 23 Maart 2018 - via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  5. ^ ab
  6. LibBrooks (3 Augustus 2002). "Die profiel: Ruth Rendell". Die voog.
  7. ^
  8. 'Skrywer Ruth Rendell sterf in die ouderdom van 85'. BBC.
  9. ^ ab
  10. "Saak oop en toe: is Ruth Rendell uiteindelik gereed om oop te maak oor haar raaiselagtige persoonlike lewe?". Die Onafhanklike. 10 Maart 2013.
  11. ^
  12. Brooks, Libby (3 Augustus 2002). "Ruth Rendell Dark Lady of Whodunnits". Die voog. Londen. Besoek op 28 Oktober 2011.
  13. ^
  14. "No. 54427". Die London Gazette (Aanvulling). 15 Junie 1996. p. 9.
  15. ^
  16. "Nr. 54933". Die London Gazette. 29 Oktober 1997. p. 12149.
  17. ^
  18. "'Luvvies' for Labour". BBC News. 30 Augustus 1998.
  19. ^
  20. "Openbare brief van bekendes aan Skotland - volledige teks en lys van ondertekenaars". Die voog. Londen. 7 Augustus 2014. Besoek op 26 Augustus 2014.
  21. ^Ruth Rendell (1930–2015) .IMDb
  22. ^ Die Hutchinson -ensiklopedie vir letterkunde. Helicon Publishing, 2006.
  23. ^
  24. "Hoe ons bestuur word". kidsforkids.org.uk. 6 Mei 2015. Besoek op 23 Maart 2018.
  25. ^
  26. "Blou gedenkplaat onthul vir die bekende en geliefde skrywer Ruth Rendell". Oos -Londen en West Essex Guardian Series . Besoek op 23 Maart 2018.
  27. ^
  28. "Ruth Rendell in 'n kritieke toestand na 'n beroerte". BBC News. 7 Januarie 2015.
  29. ^
  30. "Skrywer Ruth Rendell sterf in die ouderdom van 85". BBC News . Besoek op 2 Mei 2015.
  31. ^ ab
  32. "Wexford is ek, erken Ruth Rendell". BBC News. 10 Oktober 2011.
  33. ^
  34. Walker, Tim (4 Mei 2009). "Ruth Rendell sluit die boek oor Wexford, maar nuwe drama wink". Die Daily Telegraph. Londen. Besoek op 17 Maart 2010.
  35. ^
  36. Alison Flood. "Ruth Rendell: 'n lewe in skryf | Boeke". Die voog . Besoek op 26 Augustus 2014.
  37. ^
  38. Vanessa Thorpe (17 Augustus 2013). "Ruth Rendell: 'Om inligting van die leser te weerhou, behoort deel te wees van enige verhaal' '. Die voog.
  39. ^
  40. angstige suster (24 April 1987). "'N Oordeel in klip (1986)". IMDb.
  41. ^
  42. "Ruth Rendell keer na 12 jaar terug na ITV met 'n donker riller". Telegraph.co.uk. 6 Augustus 2012.
  43. ^https://www.theguardian.com/film/2015/may/21/the-new-girlfriend-review-francois-ozon-ruth-rendell [kaal URL]
  44. ^
  45. "Roman vir die 'verlore' Booker -prys". BBC News. 1 Februarie 2010.
  46. ^
  47. Debrett's Peerage. 2000.
  48. ^ Gepubliseer in Academy Mystery Novellas, Deel 5: Vroue skryf moord, Martin H. Greenberg en Edward D. Hoch, redakteurs. 1987

'N Kritiese opstel oor Rendell se misdaadromans verskyn in die boek van T. T. Joshi Soorte misdaadfiksie (Wildside Press, 2019) 978-1-4794-4546-2.


Belonings

As die speler die regte vaas kies, bied Tal-Rey hulle die keuse uit een van drie verskillende vlak 45-wapens-'n Warrior's Sword, a Mage's Staff of a Hunter's Dagger. Keer terug na Dr. Henry Bones in The Gauntlet om weer met hom te praat, en die speler sal 9 993 150 ervaring en 60 . Deur hierdie soeke te voltooi, sal die speler ook toegang tot die Argeoloëwinkel in die buitepos gee.


Inhoud

Aanvanklike ontwerpe en probleme Redigeer

Op 8 Oktober 1948 het die raad van senior offisiere van die Amerikaanse Lugmag (USAF) aanbevelings gemaak dat die diens 'n kompetisie reël vir 'n nuwe afsnyer wat in 1954 as sodanig in diens sou tree, die aanvanklike nuwe ontwerp sou aanvanklik die naam wees " 1954 Ultimate Interceptor ". [2] Vier maande later, op 4 Februarie 1949, het die USAF die aanbeveling goedgekeur en bereid om die kompetisie die volgende jaar te hou. In November 1949 besluit die Lugmag dat die nuwe vliegtuig rondom 'n brandbeheerstelsel (FCS) gebou sou word. Die FCS moes voor die vliegtuig ontwerp word om versoenbaarheid te verseker. [3] Die vliegtuigraam en FCS is saam die wapenstelsel genoem.

In Januarie 1950 het die USAF Air Materiel Command 'n versoek om voorstelle (RFP's) aan 50 maatskappye vir die FCS gerig, waarvan 18 gereageer het. Teen Mei is die lys afwaarts hersien na 10. Intussen het 'n direksie by die Amerikaanse departement van verdediging onder leiding van generaal-majoor Gordon P. Saville die voorstelle hersien en dit aan die George E. Valley-geleide ingenieurswese-komitee versprei. Na aanbevelings van die komitee aan die Saville -raad, is die voorstelle verder verminder tot twee mededingers, Hughes Aircraft en North American Aviation. Alhoewel die Vallei -komitee van mening was dat dit die beste was om die kontrak aan beide maatskappye toe te ken, is Hughes op 2 Oktober 1950 deur Saville en sy span gekies. [4] [5]

Voorstelle vir die vliegtuigraamwerk is op 18 Junie 1950 uitgereik, en in Januarie 1951 het ses vervaardigers gereageer. [6] Op 2 Julie 1954 het drie maatskappye, Convair, Republic en Lockheed, die reg gekry om 'n model te bou. Tot dan het Convair navorsing gedoen oor vliegtuie met delta-gevleuelde eksperimente met verskillende ontwerpe, waarvan twee onder die naam P-92 val. Van die drie was die beste ontwerp om die produksiekontrak onder die naam "Project MX-1554" te wen. Uiteindelik het Convair die oorwinnaar geword met sy ontwerp, aangedui as "XF-102", nadat Lockheed uitgeval het en Republic slegs 'n model gemaak het. [5] Die ontwikkeling van drie verskillende ontwerpe was te duur en in November kon slegs Convair met sy model 8-80 voortgaan. [7] Om die ontwikkeling te bespoedig, is voorgestel om die prototipes en voorproduksievliegtuie toe te rus met die minder kragtige Westinghouse J40 turbojet. Voortgesette vertragings by die J67 en MA-1 (voorheen "MX-1179") [8] FCS het gelei tot die besluit om 'n tussentydse vliegtuig met die J40 en 'n eenvoudiger brandbeheerstelsel ('E-9') in produksie te plaas as die F-102A. Die mislukking van die J40 het daartoe gelei dat die Pratt & amp; Whitney J57-turbo-jet met naverbrander, met 'n druk van 4400 kg (9 kN) stoot [9] vervang is deur die prototipes en F-102A's. [10] [11] Hierdie vliegtuig was bedoel om tydelik te wees, in afwagting van die ontwikkeling van die F-102B, wat die meer gevorderde Curtiss-Wright J67, 'n gelisensieerde afgeleide van die Bristol-Siddeley Olympus, wat nog in ontwikkeling was, sou gebruik. [12] Die F-102B sou later ontwikkel om die F-106A te word, die 'Ultimate Interceptor' genoem. [9]

Die prototipe YF-102 het sy eerste vlug op 23 Oktober 1953 by Edwards AFB gemaak, maar het nege dae later in 'n ongeluk verlore gegaan. Die tweede vliegtuig het op 11 Januarie 1954 gevlieg, wat 'n treurige vertoning bevestig het. Transoniese weerstand was baie hoër as wat verwag is, en die vliegtuig was beperk tot Mach 0.98 (dws subsonies), met 'n plafon van 14.630 m, ver onder die vereistes. [13]

Groot herontwerp Redigeer

Om die probleem op te los en die F-102 te red, het Convair 'n groot herontwerp onderneem, met die onlangs ontdekte gebiedsreël, terwyl dit terselfdertyd produksie en onderhoud vereenvoudig het. [14] Die herontwerp behels die verlenging van die romp met 3,35 m, wat in die middelste gedeelte "geknyp" word (met die naam "Coke Bottle -konfigurasie"), met twee groot kuipe aan weerskante van die enjinstuit, met hersiene innames en 'n nuwe, nouer afdak. 'N Kragtiger model van die J57 is aangebring en die vliegtuigstruktuur is ligter. [15] [16]

Terselfdertyd is die vleuel herontwerp, dunner en breër gemaak. Die voorkant het 'n kegelvormige hang, met die toppunt aan die wortel, om die hantering teen lae snelhede te verbeter. Omdat die hang onder die skokkegel van die voorkant gebly het, was die styging teen supersoniese snelhede minimaal. 'N Tweede, binne -heining is bygevoeg. [17] [18]

Die eerste hersiene vliegtuig, met die naam YF-102A, vlieg op 20 Desember 1954, 118 dae nadat die herontwerp begin het, en die volgende dag Mach 1 oorskry. [16] Die hersiene ontwerp toon 'n snelheid van Mach 1.22 en 'n plafon van 16.154 m aan. Hierdie verbeterings was voldoende vir die Lugmag om die produksie van die F-102 toe te laat, met 'n nuwe produksiekontrak wat in Maart 1954 onderteken is. [19]

Die produksie F-102A het die Hughes MC-3-brandbeheerstelsel, wat later opgegradeer is in diens van die MG-10. Dit het 'n driesegment van interne wapens onder die romp vir lug-tot-lug missiele. Aanvanklike bewapening was drie pare GAR-1/2/3/4 (Later weer aangewys as AIM-4) Falcon-missiele, wat beide infrarooi homing en semi-aktiewe radar homing variante ingesluit het. Die deure van die twee voorste baaie het elk buise vir 12 FFAR (vir 'n totaal van 24), wat aanvanklik 5,1 cm aangebring is en later 70 mm vervang. Die F-102 is later opgegradeer om tot twee GAR-11/AIM-26 kernvalk missiele in die middelbaai te vervoer. [20] Die groter grootte van hierdie wapen het herontwerpte middelste deure nodig sonder vuurpylbuise. Daar is oorweeg dat planne die MB-1 Genie-kernvuurpyl by die ontwerp pas, maar hoewel 'n Genie in Mei 1956 uit 'n YF-102A getoets is, is dit nooit aanvaar nie. [21]

Die F-102 het gedurende sy operasionele leeftyd verskeie groot wysigings ondergaan, met die meeste vliegtuie wat ingebou is met infrarooi soek-/opsporingstelsels, radarwaarskuwingsontvangers, transponders, kunsmatige horisonne en verbeterings aan die brandbeheerstelsel. [22] 'n Voorgestelde weergawe vir naby ondersteuning (wat nooit gebou is nie) sou ook 'n interne Gatling-geweer, twee ekstra hardpunte vir bomme, bevat (benewens die twee ondervleuelmaste vir valtenks wat by alle produksie F- 102s), groter interne brandstoftenks, en 'n sonde tydens die hervulling. [22]

Om F-102A-vlieëniers op te lei, is die TF-102A-afrigter ontwikkel, met uiteindelik 111 vervaardig. Die vliegtuig is ontwerp om langs mekaar te sit om vlieëniersopleiding te vergemaklik, 'n gewilde konsep in die 1950's (ook onder andere saam met die Amerikaanse Cessna T-37, British Hawker Hunter T.7 en English Electric Lightning T.4) . Dit het 'n herontwerp van die kajuit en 'n neus vereis wat byna net so breed was as dié van 'n Convair 340 kommersiële vliegtuig. Die nuwe neus het buffering bekendgestel, waarvan die oorsprong die bolvormige kap was. Vortex -kragopwekkers is bo -op die afdak bygevoeg om die buffet wat omstreeks Mach 0.72 begin het, te voorkom. [23] Die inlaatkanale is hersien namate die inlate herposisioneer is. Ten spyte van die vele veranderinge, was die vliegtuig in staat om te veg, alhoewel hierdie variant voorspelbaar stadiger was en slegs subsoniese snelhede in vlugvlakke bereik het. [24]

Die talle inherente ontwerp en tegniese beperkings van die F-102 het gelei tot 'n voorgestelde opvolger, aanvanklik bekend as die F-102B "Ultimate Interceptor". Die verbeterde ontwerp, waarin die voorgestelde Curtiss-Wright J67-straalmotor uiteindelik deur 'n Pratt & amp; Whitney J75 vervang is, het soveel aerodinamiese veranderinge ondergaan (insluitend ingange met veranderlike meetkunde) dat dit in wese 'n heeltemal nuwe vliegtuig geword het en daarom herontwerp en vervaardig is as die F-106 Delta Dart. Convair sou ook 'n deltavlerkontwerp gebruik in die Mach 2-klas Convair B-58 Hustler-bomwerper.

Inleiding tot diens Redigeer

Die eerste operasionele diens van die F-102A was met die 327ste Fighter-Interceptor Squadron by die George Air Force Base, [21] in April 1956, en uiteindelik is 'n totaal van 889 F-102A's gebou, die produksie eindig in September 1958. [25 ] TF-102's en F-102's is in die 1960's deur die Air Defense Command (ADC) in Perrin AFB, Texas, gebruik om nuwe F-102-vlieëniers op te lei. Hulle het ook platformopleiding gegee oor vlugkenmerke van delta-gevleuelde vliegtuie vir vlieëniers wat bestem was om die B-58 Hustler-bomwerper vir die Strategic Air Command (SAC) te vlieg.

Die F-102 se amptelike naam, "Delta Dagger", is nooit in die gewone taal gebruik nie, en die vliegtuig was algemeen bekend as die "Deuce". Die TF-102 het bekend gestaan ​​as die 'bad' vanweë sy breër romp met 'n tweeling-sitplek langs mekaar. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Gedurende die tyd dat die F-102A in diens was, is verskeie nuwe vleuelontwerpe gebruik om te eksperimenteer met die toediening van 'n groter koniese hak op die vlerke. Uiteindelik is 'n ontwerp gekies wat die oppervlakte in werklikheid vergroot, die opstygsnelheid verminder, die supersoniese L/D -verhouding verbeter het en die plafon van die vliegtuig tot 56.000 voet (17.069 m) verhoog het. As gevolg van die herontwerp van die vleuel, is die landingstuig se deure nodig.

Die Air Defense Command het F-102 Delta Daggers in 1960 in diens gehad, en die tipe het tot in die sewentigerjare steeds in groot getalle diens gedoen by die lugmag- en Air National Guard-eenhede. George W. Bush, later president van die Verenigde State, het as deel van sy Texas Air National Guard diens van 1968 tot 1972 die F-102 in die 147ste Fighter Interceptor Group in Ellington AFB in Houston, Texas, gevlieg. [26]

Oorlogdiens in Viëtnam Redigeer

Die F-102 het in die Viëtnam-oorlog gedien, vegpatrollies gevlieg en as bomwerpers begelei. 'N Totaal van 14 vliegtuie het in Viëtnam verlore gegaan: een vir lug-tot-lug-gevegte, [27] verskeie vuurwapens en die res weens ongelukke.

Aanvanklik is daar in 1962 begin om F-102-afdelings na basisse in Suidoos-Asië te stuur nadat radarkontakte wat deur grondradars opgespoor is, vermoedelik die Noord-Viëtnamese Viëtnamese weermag (VPAF) Il-28 "Beagle" -bomwerpers was-wat beskou word as 'n geloofwaardige bedreiging in daardie tydperk. Die F-102's is na Thailand en ander nabygeleë lande gestuur om hierdie vliegtuie te onderskep as hulle Suid-Viëtnam bedreig.

Later is Boeing B-52 Stratofortress-aanvalle, met die kodenaam "Arc Light", begelei deur F-102's in die teater. Dit was tydens een van hierdie missies dat 'n F-102 deur 'n VPAF Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 met 'n hitte-soekende missiel AA-2 Atoll neergeskiet is. Die MiG's het ongemerk genader en een van die F-102's is getref deur 'n lug-tot-lug-missiel wat nie onmiddellik ontplof het nie, maar in die agterkant van die vliegtuig bly lê het, wat stabiliteitsprobleme veroorsaak het. Toe die vlieënier die probleem by sy vleuelman rapporteer, het die vleuelman gesien hoe die beskadigde Delta -dolk in die lug ontplof en die vlieënier doodgemaak het. [28] Dit was die enigste lug-tot-lug-verlies vir die F-102 tydens die Viëtnam-oorlog. Die ander F-102-vlieënier het AIM-4-missiele op die vertrekkende MiG-21's afgevuur, maar geen tref is aangeteken nie.

Die F-102 is met beperkte sukses in die lug-tot-grond-rol aangewend, hoewel nie die vliegtuig of die opleiding vir sy vlieëniers daarvoor ontwerp is nie. Die Deuces van die 509th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron arriveer op 4 Augustus 1964 by die Da Nang-lugbasis, vanaf die Clark-lugbasis, Filippyne. [29] Die interceptor was toegerus met 24 70 mm (24 mm) FFAR in die romp se deure. Dit kan effektief gebruik word teen verskillende soorte Noord -Viëtnamese teikens in daglig. In die nag was dit minder gevaarlik om hitte-soekende Falcon-missiele te gebruik saam met die F-102 se neus-gemonteerde IRST (Infrared Search & amp Track) op nagte-teisterings op die Ho Chi Minh-roete. Sommige F-102A's is opgestel om 'n enkele AIM-26 Super Falcon in elke sybaai te plaas in plaas van die twee konvensionele AIM-4 Valke. Operasies met beide die F-102A en TF-102A tweesitplekke (wat in 'n Forward Air Control-rol gebruik is omdat sy twee sitplekke en 2,75 in/70 mm-vuurpyle goeie veelsydigheid vir die missie bied) in Vietnam voortgesit tot 1968 toe alle F -102's is na die Verenigde State terugbesorg.

Opsomming van (14) USAF F-102 Delta Daggers wat verlore geraak het in die Viëtnam-oorlog 1964–1969
Datum F-102 model Eenheid Oorsaak van verlies/opmerkings
27 November 1964 F-102A 509ste vegvliegtuig-eskader (FIS) Enjin mislukking. [30]
1 Julie 1965 F-102A 509ste FIS (3) (3) F-102As vernietig op die grond deur vyandige sappers by Da Nang Air Base. [31]
15 Desember 1965 F-102A 509ste VIS Deur grondvuur gedemp terwyl lugsorg (CAS) verskaf word. [32]
19 Augustus 1966 F-102A 509ste VIS Bedryfsverlies, neergestort tydens naglanding. [33]
14 Desember 1966 F-102A 64ste FIS Binne 60 sekondes na die opstyg deur vuurwapens afgevuur. [34]
15 Januarie 1967 TF-102A 509ste VIS Bedryfsverlies, veerbootmissie. [35]
2 April 1967 F-102A 509ste VIS Bedryfsverlies, enjinonderbreking. Word ook bedien met 16de en 64ste FIS. [36]
12 Mei 1967 F-102A 509ste VIS Vernietig tydens vyandelike grondaanval mortiervuur ​​by die Biên Hòa -lugbasis. [37]
3 Februarie 1968 F-102A 509ste VIS Gedaal deur MiG-21 K-13 (missiel) op 36.000 voet. [38]
16 Julie 1968 F-102A 509ste VIS Bedryfsverlies, enjinonderbreking. [39]
16 September 1968 F-102A 509ste VIS Bedryfsverlies, grondbotsing na landing met 'n RF-4 Phantom II. [40]
7 Januarie 1969 F-102A 509ste VIS Bedryfsverlies, enjinonderbreking. [41]

Gebruik later Edit

In 1973 is ses vliegtuie omgeskakel na doelhommeltuie as QF-102A's en later PQM-102B's (simuleer MiG-21 bedreigingsvliegtuie) onder 'n Full Scale Aerial Target (FSAT) projek bekend as Pave Deuce. [42] Uiteindelik het die program honderde F-102's omskep vir gebruik as doelhommeltuie vir nuwer vegvliegtuie, sowel as toetsing van die Amerikaanse weermag se Patriot-missielstelsel. [43]

Die F-102 en TF-102 is na die buiteland uitgevoer na sowel Turkye as Griekeland. Die Turkse F-102's het gevegsmissies gesien tydens die Turkse inval in Ciprus in 1974. Daar is bewerings van luggevegte tussen Griekse F-5's en Turkse F-102's bo die Egeïese See tydens die Turkse inval. 'N Griekse redakteur op die webwerf, Demetrius Stergiou, beweer dat die Griekse F-5's twee Turkse F-102's neergeskiet het, terwyl die Turkse kant beweer het dat hul F-102's twee Griekse F-5's neergeskiet het [44], albei Griekeland en Turkye ontken steeds amptelik enige vliegtuigverliese. Die F-102 is uiteindelik in 1979 by albei lugmagte afgetree.

Die F-102 het die Amerikaanse diens in 1976 verlaat, terwyl die laaste QF-102A / PQM-102B-hommeltuig in 1986 bestee is. Geen F-102's bly vandag in 'n vliegbare toestand nie, hoewel baie by museums of as permanente statiese uitstallings as hek gesien kan word voogde by Air Force en Air National Guard installasies.

In 1969 het Griekeland 24 van hierdie vliegtuie aangeskaf vir gebruik deur die 114th Combat Wing by Tanagra Air Base. 19 van hulle was F-102A's met een sitplek, vyf was TF-102A's met twee sitplekke. Hulle het by die Griekse lugmag gedien tot 1977, toe die F-102's deur Mirage F1CG-vegters vervang is. . [48]

Vanaf 1968 is ongeveer 50 F-102A's en TF-102A's uit USAF-aandele na Turkye oorgeplaas. Voordat hulle na Turkye oorgeplaas is, is hulle deur CASA in Sevilla opgeknap. Hulle is aanvanklik toegewys aan die 191ste Filo (eskader) wat op Murted gebaseer is, en vervang die F-84F Thunderstreaks wat voorheen aan hierdie eenheid toegewys was. Hierdie eenheid is vroeg in 1973 herontwerp as 142ste Filo. In 1971 is F-102's ook toegewys aan die 182ste Filo in Diyarbakır, ter vervanging van die F-84F's wat voorheen deur hierdie eenheid gevlieg is. F-102's bly in diens by hierdie twee eskaders tot middel 1979, toe hulle vervang is deur die F-104G in die 142ste Filo en deur die F-100C in die 182ste Filo.


    , die volgende klas in die ordelike dolkklas, kan verkry word sodra u 'n silwer beskutting het.
  • Tweede laagste wapen-XP-vereiste vir superklasse sonder magie (Smid benodig minder, maar het ander baie moeilike vereistes).
  • Die verbeterde behendigheid kan u toelaat om teenstanders te vang of met groot gemak van teenstanders te vlug.
  • Silverguard maak spioen 'n baie slinkse klas onder ander supers, aangesien alle skade wat ontvang word terwyl dit aktief is, gehalveer word as u die toepaslike silwer besit. bevoordeel hierdie klas baie vir voorkomende aanvalle. Deur ondervraging te gebruik en dit uit te skakel, kan hoë skadelike spel maklik uitgevoer word.
  • Veerval is 'n algemene voordeel om te verken en te ontsnap, aangesien val en breek van 'n been / aansienlike valskade baie minder kommerwekkend is. As dit gekombineer word met rol voordat dit op die grond slaan, kan 'n spioen absurde afstande val met minimale skade.
  • As jy naby 'n krans basies iemand kan skiet deur hom te ondervra en van die krans af te gooi, tensy hy vinnig genoeg ontsnap. Hierdie stap is vieslik, en u slagoffer sal u waarskynlik opspoor om dit te doen.
  • U geheime is deursigtig genoeg sodat u 'n hinderlaag op u vyande kan plaas (bv. Genoeg om iemand in 'n groep van die krans van Oresfall af te gooi.).
  • Lae skade as gevolg van die gebrek aan aanstootlike vaardighede.
  • Anders as die chaotiese eweknie, het dit geen manier om die dolk effektief aan die teenstander te koppel nie. Dit beteken dat dit redelik moeilik sal bly om 'n suksesvolle kombinasie te maak, laat staan ​​om ordentlike skade te berokken.
  • Spelers kan maklik voorkom dat hulle ondervra word deur silwer te laat val om hulself in die stryd te bring.
  • Selfs as mana -afskerming, as u silwer beskerm is, dit silwer steeds wegneem.
  • Silwerskerm is nutteloos sonder 'n groot hoeveelheid silwer.
  • Word dikwels beskou as die ergste superklas, dus gaan na toendra en kry Whisperer so gou as moontlik.
  • Sonder om aandag te skenk, dink u miskien dat u 'n aanval gekry het en vreemd optree as u 'n aanval met 'n silwer skerm blokkeer.
  • Elke geveg neem baie silwer van u af met 'n silwer wag as u veg teen mense met 'n lae dmg -uitset per treffer.

Die dodelikste bloedbad in heropbou-era Louisiana het 150 jaar gelede plaasgevind

Lees dus die briefie wat deur die beoogde ontvanger op die deur van die skoolhuis gevind is: Emerson Bentley, 'n wit skoolonderwyser. Hy vind die boodskap vroeg in September 1868, geïllustreer met 'n kis, 'n skedel en bene, en 'n dolk wat drup van bloed. Die eenvoudige boodskap was 'n bedreiging vir Bentley, wat destyds Afro-Amerikaanse kinders in Louisiana onderrig het. Die Republikein wat in Ohio gebore is, kon min voorspel het hoe gou daardie geweld sou plaasvind.

Bentley, 'n 18-jarige wat ook as een van die redakteurs van die Republikeinse koerant gewerk het Die St. Landry -vordering, was een van die min blanke Republikeine in die Louisiana -gemeente St. Landry. Hy en ander het na die streek gekom om onlangs geemansipeerde Afro-Amerikaners te help om werk te kry, toegang tot onderwys te kry en polities aktief te word. Omdat Louisiana in April 1868 'n nuwe staatsgrondwet aangeneem het, wat manlike enfranchisasie en toegang tot staatskole insluit, ongeag die kleur, het Bentley rede gehad om optimisties te voel oor die toekoms van die staat.

But southern, white Democrats were nowhere near willing to concede the power they’d held for decades before the Civil War. And in St. Landry, one of the largest and most populous parishes in the state, thousands of white men were eager to take up arms to defend their political power.

The summer of 1868 was a tumultuous one. With the help of tens of thousands of black citizens who finally had the right to vote, Republicans handily won local and state elections that spring. Henry Clay Warmoth, a Republican, won the race for state governor, but the votes African-Americans cast for those elections cost them. Over the summer, armed white men harassed black families, shot at them outside of Opelousas (the largest city in St. Landry Parish), and killed men, women and children with impunity. Editors of Democratic newspapers repeatedly warned of dire consequences if the Republican party continued winning victories at the polls.

Those editorials spurred Democrats to action and instigated violence everywhere, wrote Warmoth in his book War, Politics, and Reconstruction: Stormy Days in Louisiana. “Secret Democratic organizations were formed, and all armed. We had ‘The Knights of the White Camellia,’ ‘The Ku-Klux Klan,’ and an Italian organization called ‘The Innocents,’ who nightly paraded the streets of New Orleans and the roads in the country parishes, producing terror among the Republicans.”

The vigilante groups were so widespread that they often included nearly every white man in the region. One Democratic newspaper editor estimated that more than 3,000 men belonged to the Knights of the White Camellia of St. Landry Parish—an area that included only 13,776 white people in total, including women and children.

With the approach of the presidential elections in November, the tension only increased. On September 13, the Republicans held a meeting in the town of Washington, not far from Opelousas, and found streets lined with armed Seymour Knights. A misfired rifle nearly caused a riot to break out, but in the end, everyone departed peacefully—though the Democrats threatened Bentley if he failed to publish an “honest” account of the event in the St. Landry Progress. Sure enough, they used Bentley’s account, in which he wrote the men had been intimidating the Republicans, to instigate a wave of violence on September 28, 1868.

Displeased with the way Bentley had portrayed the Democrats, Democrats John Williams, James R. Dickson (who later became a local judge), and constable Sebastian May visited Bentley’s schoolhouse to make good on the anonymous threats of the earlier September note. They forced him to sign a retraction of the article, and then Dickson savagely beat Bentley, sending the children who were sitting for lessons scattering in terror. Rumors spread, and soon many Republicans were convinced Bentley had been killed, though he managed to escape with his life. As a small number of African-Americans prepared to rescue Bentley, word spread around the parish that a black rebellion was imminent. Thousands of white men began arming themselves and raiding houses around the area.

“St. Landrians reacted to armed Negroes and rumors of an uprising in the same manner that Southerners had reacted for generations,” wrote historian Carolyn deLatte in 1976. “If anything, the vengeance visited upon the Negro population was greater, as blacks were no longer protected by any consideration of their monetary value.”

On the first night, only one small group of armed African-Americans assembled to deal with the report they’d heard about Bentley. They were met by an armed group of white men, mounted on horses, outside Opelousas. Of those men, 29 were taken to the local prison, and 27 of them were summarily executed. The bloodshed continued for two weeks, with African-American families killed in their homes, shot in public, and chased down by vigilante groups. C.E. Durand, the other editor of the St. Landry Progress, was murdered in the early days of the massacre and his body displayed outside the Opelousas drug store. By the end of the two weeks, estimates of the number killed were around 250 people, the vast majority of them African-American.

When the Bureau of Freedmen (a governmental organization created to provide emancipated African-Americans with legal, health and educational assistance and help them settle abandoned lands) sent Lieutenant Jesse Lee to investigate, he called it “a quiet reign of terror so far as the freed people were concerned.” Influential Republican Beverly Wilson, an African-American blacksmith in Opelousas, believed black citizens were “in a worse condition now than in slavery.” Another observer was led outside the town of Opelousas and shown the half-buried bodies of more than a dozen African-Americans.

But Democratic papers—the only remaining sources of news in the region, as all Republican presses had been burned—downplayed the horrific violence. “The people generally are well satisfied with the result of the St. Landry riot, only they regret that the Carpet-Baggers escaped,” wrote Daniel Dennet, editor of the Democratic Franklin Planter’s Banner. “The editor escaped and a hundred dead negroes, and perhaps a hundred more wounded and crippled, a dead white Radical, a dead Democrat, and three or four wounded Democrats are the upshot of the business.”

The groups managed to achieve their ultimate purpose, as was borne out by the results of the November presidential elections. Even though Republican nominee Ulysses Grant won, not a single Republican vote was counted in St. Landry Parish. Those who oversaw the election felt “fully convinced that no man on that day could have voted any other than the democratic ticket and not been killed inside of 24 hours thereafter.”

“St. Landry Parish illustrates the local shift of power after 1868, where an instance of conservative boss rule occurred and the parish Republican Party was unable to fully recover for the remainder of Reconstruction,” writes historian Matthew Christensen. There would be no Republican organization in the parish for the next four years, and no Republican paper until 1876.

The Opelousas massacre also set the stage for future acts of violence and intimidation. “Lynching became routinized in Louisiana, a systematic way by which whites sought to assert white supremacy in response to African-American resistance,” said historian Michael Pfeifer, the author of The Roots of Rough Justice: Origins of American Lynching, by email. “This would be an important precedent for the subsequent wave of lynchings that occurred in Louisiana from the 1890s through the early decades of the twentieth century, in which lynch mobs killed more than 400 persons, most of them African American.”

Yet for all that it was the deadliest instance of racial violence during the Reconstruction period, the Opleousas massacre is little remembered today. Only slightly better known is the 1873 Colfax massacre in which an estimated 60 to 150 people were killed—a massacre largely following the pattern set by Opelousas.

“The United States has done comparatively little until quite recently to memorialize its history of significant racial violence,” Pfeifer said. “Reconstruction remains contested in local memory and efforts to remember the achievements of Reconstruction are cancelled out by the seeming failure of the period to achieve lasting change.”


Read the Full Transcript

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

The actions taken by the George W. Bush administration in the aftermath of the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks, were, according to author Mary Graham, a recalibration of the role of secrecy in open government. A president who championed limited government approved the secret detention of foreign terrorist suspects and the eavesdropping on phone calls of American citizens.

MARY GRAHAM:

When his detention policies and interrogation policies and surveillance policies began to be revealed, this was then a few years later, I thought there must be some ground rules. There must be a law that tells us what a president can do behind closed doors in an emergency. But it turned out there really were no laws. One thing about our system of governance that makes secrecy so interesting is that there's really no way that to stop a president from doing something illegal, unethical, or just plain foolish behind closed doors.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

In her new book, "Presidents' Secrets: The Use and Abuse of Hidden Power," Graham finds modern presidential secrecy is paramount in questions of national security, from the Cold War to the War on Terror.

The Bush administration came in with a firm commitment that they could move things quickly through government and then they have the crisis of 9/11. And this substantially changed the way that they used information and used secrecy.

MARY GRAHAM:

It's only in the hard times when the president has to face these values &mdash the conflict between values that we cherish, that you see a president's true character. So I think that these are the times when we need to pay attention to what decisions the president makes about openness and secrecy.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

When President Barack Obama took over, he declassified memos used to justify harsh interrogations of post 9/11 terror suspects, and he created a national declassification center for older government documents.

But Wikileaks and self-described whistleblower, Edward Snowden, prevented the Obama administration from concealing details about electronic surveillance, drone strikes, and offensive cyber weapons.

What was it like coming to the finish line of your book toward the end of the Obama administration thinking that we have just now tapped into a whole new chapter of information and secrecy, particularly the ways in which the digital age are transforming the whole landscape?

MARY GRAHAM:

Secrecy doesn't work in the digital age. One way or another, controversial secrets and big controversial secrets come out these days. And it's much harder to keep anything hidden for very long. And what ends up happening is that the president cedes leadership to his opponents and to the media. And therefore is weakened in the process.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

A co-founder of Harvard's Transparency Policy Project, Graham finds our democracy's delicate balance between openness and secrecy dates back to country's founding.

You write, "in democracy, secrecy cannot last forever." And yet, our government, the representative form we so often celebrate, was rather shockingly born out of unplanned secrecy.

MARY GRAHAM:

That's so true. So the Constitutional Convention was held behind closed doors. The delegates certainly felt that it had to be held behind closed doors because they had been asked by Congress only to tweak what were then called the Articles of Confederation. And once they decided that they would consider an entirely different form of government, it really was an illicit meeting in a good cause, but still an illicit meeting.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

Do you think had the discussion taken place out in the open it would have altered our national trajectory and essentially our identity?

MARY GRAHAM:

You know, the consensus of historians seems to be that it would not have resulted in an agreement on a constitution if the process had been open.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

Even George Washington, a champion of government transparency, suffered his greatest political crisis as president, when he hid the terms of a treaty with Britain.

One of the best kept presidential secrets in U.S. history occurred in 1919, when president Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke.

MARY GRAHAM:

It would never happen now, what happened with Wilson, which was he was able to keep an incapacitating stroke secret for a year-and-a-half. But during much of that time, he was still quite weak but what became the biggest problem for the country is that he became irrational.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

But Graham says, it wasn't until the Cold War, that secrecy became institutionalized. As she tells it, Harry Truman's creation of the Central Intelligence Agency originated simply with a quest for a convenient delivery of information.

MARY GRAHAM:

On his desk every morning, there were stacks and stacks of military cables, which was the best effort at the time to give him information about what was going on in the world. But he found them very frustrating. So what he asked an aide to do which seemed very simple at the time was just to form a small group in the White House that would digest those cables and give him a few type-written pages every morning telling him what was the important intelligence. And so he borrowed 15 employees from elsewhere in the government and he called that the Central Intelligence Group.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

Less than two years later, this group, which had evolved into what is now called the Central Intelligence agency, had been granted the right to keep its spending secret and operate with little oversight.

MARY GRAHAM:

As Harry Truman said later, it was never supposed to be a cloak and dagger operation. They were just supposed to gather intelligence. So they were gathering intelligence. But from a very early stage, they were also conducting these covert operations that involved bribing foreign officials. Later on by the '60s, it involved assassination plots and surveillance of Americans, even though it was not, the C.I.A. was not supposed to be in that business.

CHRISTOPHER BOOKER:

With Vietnam and Watergate, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon had two of the more notably secretive administrations.

Ironically, as a senator, Johnson fought for increased presidential transparency. But in the White House, he worked to water down the bill that became the Freedom of Information Act, which gives journalists and the public greater access to government documents.

And while Nixon's back channel negotiations led to normalizing U.S. relations with China, the revelation of his secret tape recordings discussing the Watergate break-in forced him to resign.

This was all before 24-7 cable news, the internet, and social media &hellip.A constant part of a 21st century presidency.

It seems nearly every, single day there's a new revelation that's come via an anonymous source or a leak.

MARY GRAHAM:

So every president gets mad about leaks. President Obama was mad about leaks. President Bush was mad about leaks. George Washington was mad about leaks. There's one thing to remember about leaks, and that is leakers only have power if the president gives them power. The president can stop leaks in a nanosecond by simply disclosing information.


Geskiedenis

D-Rank Dungeon Arc

Sung Jin-Woo and members of his raid party including Song Chi-Yul and Lee Ju-Hee entered the dungeon believing it to be a D-Rank dungeon and well within their capabilities. After clearing the main dungeon, which was indeed was of such caliber, the group discovered another entrance within the dungeon. The group entered the pathway leading to the dungeon after voting on whether to enter or not. Standing in front of the large door, Song Chi-Yul pushed open the large doors to be presented with a seemingly abandoned temple with towering stone statues and a large statue sitting on a throne. The room was lit with light blue flames that were littered across the room.

There existed 3 commandments within the dungeon, stating:

After a D-Rank member of the party was killed by the statues in an attempt to leave the dungeon, the group began to panic with the statues' ability to move and kill hunters with ease.

Many hunters were slain by the statues before the first and second commandments were fulfilled allowing the remaining survivors except Jin-Woo to escape the temple. Jin-Woo, who was left alone was impaled by one of the dungeons statues and was on the verge of death. As Jin-Woo writhed in pain, he wished for another chance at life, only to witness a 'Status window' present itself before him, stating that he had completed the requirements for the hidden quest, Courage of the Weak. Jin-Woo, being given the option to accept or reject his status as a player, chose to accept this, and hence survived the Double Dungeon.

Double Dungeon Arc


Vermoëns

Active

  • Dagger Throw - The user throws a dagger towards an opponent, dealing low damage. (15 damage with all daggers) While this appears to be impractical, it can combat tag enemies if it hits or flies near them, keeping them from logging. And while it's weak, it's still a (and thief's only) ranged option. When you and your enemy are spaced, don't hesitate to use a dagger throw. (you can also kill the dragon with this if you're going solo dragon slayer.)
  • Sakkie- Pickpocket has an M1 and M2. M1 is pickpocket, where the user steals 3 silver from whoever is touched by it. However, the user whose silver is being stolen hears the sound of being pick-pocketed, and you are likely to be caught. If the target has less than 3 silver, it steals all of their remaining silver. The M2 is trinket steal, which allows you to steal any trinket off of someone (if they have more than one of the same trinket, it steals the entire stack). Phoenix Downs, Rift Gems, and Ice Essences can be stolen as well, but other artifacts cannot.
  • Lock Manipulation - Allows you to unlock any locked door, or lock any door for 6,4 seconds. Cannot lockpick chaotic doors, only lock them. You cannot use this ability while your leg is broken. Often used to escape jail cells.
  • Agility - Temporarily increases movement and attack speed for all weapons (including fists). The end of the buff is signaled with a blue flash on your character. 30 second cooldown. Ashiins automatically get Agility when buying a dagger. Agility's duration is increased upon becoming a Spy or Assassin.
  • Stealth - The user becomes slightly transparent for around 20 seconds. Stealth can be used without a dagger, but the duration will only be for around 13 seconds. Upon become a Spy or Assassin, Stealth makes you much more transparent than the Thief version. (Stealth as a baseclass thief is laughable, you are still very visible. It could be used to hide your name and it MIGHT help if it is dark. Also, if you are underwater and use Stealth, you are completely invisible to anyone who is above the water's surface, since it reflects light. You can still be seen by anyone who is underneath the water's surface.)

Moonshadestone - Demons Souls

Moonshadestone is an upgrade item found in Demon's Souls and Demon's Souls Remake. Upgrade Materials are items that are used to strengthen the statistical value and to increase the effect of a certain piece of equipment.

Moonshadow. Enhances daggers, knives, and so on.

The darkmoonstone's power will also cause the user of a weapon enhanced with it to slowly regenerate MP. Weapons can be strengthened by Darkmoonstones up to a maximum of level 5.

Moonshadestone Types and Availability

Moonshadestone Shard

  • Dropped by Reaper in The Ritual Path.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. Roll over the broken down tower walls to find a corpse containing x1 Regenerator's Ring, then take the narrow path on the right to find a Crystal Lizard.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. In the area where you find Sparkly, the Crow. Get close to the right edge and you will see one Crystal Lizard, drop down and chase it to kill it.
  • Can be bought from the Graverobber Blige for 3000 souls each in The Ritual Path.

Moonshadestone Chunk

  • Dropped by Reaper in The Ritual Path.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. Roll over the broken down tower walls to find a corpse containing x1 Regenerator's Ring, then take the narrow path on the right to find a Crystal Lizard.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in Shrine of Storms. In the area where you find Sparkly, the Crow. Get close to the right edge and you will see one Crystal Lizard, drop down and chase it to kill it.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in The Ritual Path. Near the location of the White Bow, by the cliffside.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in The Ritual Path. One emerges from a grave in the cemetery area and the other is hidden on the grass.
  • Dropped by the Black Phantom guarding Saint Urbain in The Ritual Path.

Pure Moonshadestone

  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in The Ritual Path. Near the location of the White Bow, by the cliffside.
  • Dropped by Crystal Lizard in the Altar of Storms. One emerges from a grave in the cemetery area and the other is hidden on the grass.

Compatible Weapons

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23 Jan 2021 00:31

Copied from the Upgrades page:

Crescent Upgrades
Upgrade weapons with the Crescent upgrade path from +1 to a max level of +5. This path requires the Moonshadestone material. Removes any STR and DEX bonuses but it also provides a magical damage effect to the weapon that scales with the MAG stat. It also provides a Mana regen. effect of +1 regen / 5

19 Dec 2020 07:37

To clear up confusion, most lizards have 1 or 2 spawns, but get +1 for every boss killed in that world. Second, did about 30 runs of the first reaper in ritual path for dark moonstone (moonshade stone in remake). I got 2 chunks, 1 war scythe, and the rest were shards in pure black world tendency with the providential ring on. I would use this spot as an early soul/upgrade farm or as a last resort. The crystal lizards in alter of storms I think have the highest chance, so rolling back a save file to ensure the drop or quitting out if that still works is an option and honestly probably the best method for chunks/pure stone.

02 Dec 2020 16:18

I tried getting the pure darkmoonstone from these lizards but all they dropped were chunks and now they wont respawn anymore. So broken

25 Nov 2020 19:31

you can kill them over and over some respawn some dont but at bare minimum the white bow one can be killed 3 times.. the other two i dont know

01 Feb 2019 08:09

So if you mess up and don&apost kill the Crystal Lizards, you cannot get pure darkmoonstone, Thats dumb


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