John Lewis - Geskiedenis

John Lewis - Geskiedenis


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John Lewis

1880- 1969

Arbeidsleier

Die Amerikaanse arbeidsleier John Lewis het grootgeword in 'n steenkoolmyngemeenskap in Iowa, die seun van Walliese immigrantouers. Hy het ná die sewende graad die skool verlaat en op 15 -jarige ouderdom die myne binnegegaan.

Hy word gou aktief in vakbondbedrywighede en in 1919 word hy president van die United Mine Workers, 'n pos wat hy tot 1960 beklee het.

Lewis het die Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO, later die Congress of Industrial Organisations) in 1935 georganiseer toe die Amerikaanse Federasie van Arbeid (AFL) nie sy lidmaatskap vir ongeskoolde werkers kon open nie. Lewis het sterk steun gegee aan die New Deal -beleid van Roosevelt. Toe die VSA die Tweede Wêreldoorlog binnegaan, belowe hy 'n beleid van "No Strikes". Maar in 1943, toe hy glo dat die regering die werkers benut het, het hy stakings gelei.

In 1946 het Lewis 'n landwye steenkoolstaking gelei wat die Amerikaanse ekonomie lamgelê het en die federale regering gedwing het om die myne in beslag te neem. Tydens die Eisenhower -administrasie het Lewis 'n beleid van verblyf by die steenkoolbedryf gevolg. Lewis tree in 1960 af.


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Wat ons doen


John Lewis & amp Partners begin meer as 150 jaar gelede in 1864 handel dryf in Oxfordstraat in Londen, en is 'n toonaangewende kleinhandelaar in die Verenigde Koninkryk met 50 John Lewis & amp Partners -winkels en 'n groeiende aanlynonderneming - johnlewis.com. Ons bied ook 'n verskeidenheid finansiële produkte aan, van huisversekering tot buitelandse valuta en ons kredietkaart, die vennootskapskaart deur John Lewis Finance.

'Never Knowingly Undersold' was al meer as 75 jaar ons unieke belofte aan ons kliënte oor kwaliteit, diens en waarde. U kan vertrou dat ons altyd die beste kwaliteit produkte, met 'n verantwoordelike bron, in voorraad sal hê.

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Om die besonderhede van u naaste winkel te vind, insluitend die ligging en openingstye, gebruik die takvinder van John Lewis & amp Partners.


Die agbare John Lewis

Die kongreslid, John Lewis, het uit armoede opgestaan ​​om een ​​van Amerika se leiers te word. Hy is al meer as veertig jaar aan die voorpunt van progressiewe sosiale en politieke oorsake. Lewis is op 21 Februarie 1940 in Troy, Alabama, gebore vir die deelnemers Eddie Lewis en Willie Mae Miles. Lewis en sy nege broers en susters het grootgeword op die plaas van sy gesin, gereeld in plaas van die afgesonderde skole van die land.

Sonder die medewete van sy gesin het Lewis as student by die American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville, Tennessee, betrokke geraak by die burgerregtebeweging, waar hy gehelp het om die Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) te stig. In Februarie 1960 het Lewis gehelp om 'n suksesvolle sit-in-beweging by geskeide middagete in Nashville op die hakke van sit-ins in Greensboro, Noord-Carolina, te veroorsaak. In 1961 het Lewis vrywillig deel geword van die Freedom Riders. Lewis het sy lewe in gevaar gestel en is verskeie kere deur wit skare geslaan vir sy deelname.

Lewis was voorsitter van die SNCC van 1963 tot 1966. As voorsitter is hy erken as een van die "Big Six" van die burgerregtebeweging (saam met Martin Luther King, Jr., A. Phillip Randolph, Whitney Young, James Farmer , en Roy Wilkins) wat met president John F. Kennedy vergader het om die beplanning van die Maart op Washington te bespreek. In 1963, op die ouderdom van drie en twintig, was hy 'n hoofspreker by hierdie historiese geleentheid. In 1964, onder die vaandel van SNCC, het Lewis gehelp om die suksesvolle Mississippi Freedom Summer te koördineer en te organiseer.

In 1965 het Lewis en mede -aktivis Hosea Williams 'Bloody Sunday' gelei, een van die mees dramatiese gewelddadige protesoptredes van die beweging. Die publisiteit rondom Bloody Sunday en die daaropvolgende optog van Selma na Montgomery, Alabama, het president Lyndon Johnson daartoe gelei om te streef na die stemregwet, wat op 6 Augustus 1965 deur die kongres aangeneem is.

Lewis word in 1981 tot sy eerste regeringskantoor verkies, en dien as lid van die stadsraad van Atlanta tot 1986. Daarna word hy verkies om die vyfde kongresdistrik van Georgië, wat die stad Atlanta en dele van verskeie buitegrens verteenwoordig, te verteenwoordig. Sy bod vir herverkiesing in 1996 is onbestrede, en hy is tans in sy negende ampstermyn. Lewis is lid van die huiskomitee oor maniere en middele, die Congressional Black Caucus en die Congressional Committee to Support Writers and Journalists. Sedert 1991 dien Lewis as senior hoof -adjunk -demokratiese sweep. Lewis was in 1998 mede-outeur van Walking With The Wind: A Memoir of the Movement saam met Michael D'Orso. Lewis is ook bekroon met talle eregrade en toekennings, waaronder die John F. Kennedy "Profile in Courage Award" vir lewenslange prestasie en die NAACP Spingarn -medalje.

Hy en sy vrou Lillian, die direkteur van buitelandse sake vir die kantoor van navorsing en geborgde programme aan die Clark Atlanta Universiteit, het saam met hul twee seuns in Atlanta gewoon.

Lewis is op 17 Julie 2020 oorlede.

John Lewis is ondervra deur Die HistoryMakers op 25 April 2001.


John Lewis (1940-2020)

Rep. John Lewis was 'n Amerikaanse kongreslid en ikoon vir burgerregte, wat voorsitter was van die koördinerende komitee vir studente van 1963 tot 1966. Hy was 'n demokraat wat Georgia se 5de kongresdistrik van 1987 tot sy dood in 2020 verteenwoordig het.

John Robert Lewis is op 21 Februarie 1940 in Troy, Alabama, gebore, waar hy afgesonderde skole bygewoon het. In 1961 ontvang hy 'n B.A. van American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1967 ontvang hy 'n bykomende B.A. van Fisk University, geleë in Nashville, Tennessee.

Terwyl Lewis by die American Baptist Seminary was, tree Lewis op as 'n burgerregte -leier. Hy het in 1960 aan die sit-in-beweging in Nashville deelgeneem en die volgende jaar aan die Freedom Rides. In 1963 word hy die voorsitter van die Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) en help om die optog in Washington te organiseer, waar hy een van die hoofsprekers was. In 1964 het hy gehelp om SNCC se aktiwiteite tydens Freedom Summer te beplan. Lewis het nasionaal bekend geword nadat die Alabama State Troopers hom en 500 ander betogers aangeval het wat probeer het om die Edmund Pettus -brug oor te steek tydens die Selma na Montgomery -stemregmars in 1965. Lewis het 'n skedelbreuk opgedoen as gevolg van die pak slae.

In 1966 verlaat Lewis SNCC toe hy Black Power omhels en met gemeenskapsorganisasies in Atlanta, Georgia, begin werk. Later dieselfde jaar is hy aangewys as direkteur van gemeenskapsake vir die National Consumer Co-op Bank in Atlanta.

Lewis het die eerste keer in 1977 aangestel. Hy het probeer om die oop kongresstoel te wen wat geskep is toe president Jimmy Carter die kongreslid Andrew Young as ambassadeur by die Verenigde Nasies aangestel het. Lewis het die spesiale verkiesing verloor vir die toekomstige Amerikaanse senator Wyche Fowle, 'n raadslid in Atlanta. Vier jaar later is Lewis verkies tot die stadsraad van Atlanta, waar hy belangrike ervaring en blootstelling opgedoen het vir sy volgende kongreswedloop. In 1986 bedank Fowler sy stoel om aan die Amerikaanse senaat deel te neem. Lewis het weer gehardloop, en hierdie keer het hy die Demokratiese voorverkiesing en daarna die algemene verkiesing gewen. John Lewis was slegs die tweede Afro -Amerikaner sedert die heropbou wat die staat Georgia in die kongres verteenwoordig het.

Lewis het aan bewind gekom binne die Demokratiese party. Sedert 1991 was hy senior hoofsweep. Hy was lid van die Congressional Black Caucus. Lewis was 'n sterk en sterk teenstander van die Irak -oorlog. Hy was ook die eerste lid van die Huis wat 'n beroep op die beskuldiging van president George W. Bush gedoen het omdat hy die National Security Agency gemagtig het om sonder 'n lasbrief te luister. Lewis het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die skepping van die National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, DC. Hy het die eerste keer wetgewing ingestel om 'n nasionale museum in 1988 te skep. 'n sterk voorstander van keuse en het 'n beroep gedoen op federale befondsing van stamselnavorsing.

Daar word dikwels na John Lewis verwys as die “bewussyn van die Amerikaanse kongres. ” In 1998 publiseer hy sy outobiografie Wandel met die wind: 'n herinnering aan die beweging. Hy publiseer ook 'n grafiese roman trilogie genaamd Maart. Hy ontvang die presidensiële medalje van vryheid van president Barack Obama in 2011. Hy was lid van die Phi Beta Sigma en Sigma Pi Phi broederskap. In Desember 2019 onthul Lewis dat pankreaskanker by hom gediagnoseer is.

John Lewis was getroud met Lillian Miles Lewis, wat in 2012 oorlede is. Op 17 Julie 2020 is Lewis oorlede.


John Lewis haal aan oor ongelykheid, gelykheid en segregasie

22. “Ons is een mense met een gesin. Ons woon almal in dieselfde huis en deur boeke, deur middel van inligting, moet ons 'n manier vind om vir mense te sê dat ons die las van haat moet neerlê. Want haat is 'n te swaar las om te dra. ” – John Lewis

23. “Toe ek groot was, het ek afsondering gesien. Ek het rassediskriminasie gesien. Ek het die tekens gesien wat sê wit mans, bruin mans. Wit vroue, bruin vroue. Wit wag. En ek het nie daarvan gehou nie. ” – John Lewis

24. “ Ek was so geïnspireer deur Dr. King dat ons in 1956 saam met 'n paar van my broers en susters en eerste neefs was, maar ek was net 16 jaar oud en ons het na die openbare biblioteek gegaan om 'n paar te besoek. boeke, en die bibliotekaris het ons meegedeel dat die biblioteek slegs vir blankes was en nie vir kleure nie. Dit was 'n openbare biblioteek. ” – John Lewis

25. “Ons is moeg daarvoor om deur polisiemanne geslaan te word. Ons is moeg daarvoor om ons mense telkens in die tronk te sien opsluit. En dan sê jy, ‘ Wees geduldig. ’ Hoe lank kan ons geduldig wees? ” – John Lewis

26. “ Ek glo regtig dat ons almal, as Amerikaners, almal soos medemense behandel moet word. ” – John Lewis

27. “ Nie een van ons kan rus, gelukkig wees, tuis wees, vrede met onsself hê totdat ons haat en verdeeldheid beëindig nie. ” – John Lewis

28. “ Ek glo ras is 'n te swaar las om in die 21ste eeu te dra. Dit is tyd om dit neer te lê. Ons het almal hier op verskillende skepe gekom, maar nou is ons almal in dieselfde bootjie. ” – John Lewis

29. “ Te veel van ons glo nog steeds dat ons verskille ons definieer. ” – John Lewis

30. “Ons is een mens; ons is net 'n gesin. En as ons uiteindelik hierdie waarhede aanvaar, dan sal ons die drome van dr. King kan verwesenlik om 'n geliefde gemeenskap, 'n nasie en 'n wêreld in vrede met homself te bou. ” – John Lewis

31. “Ons is een mense, en ons woon almal in dieselfde huis. Nie die Amerikaanse huis nie, maar die wêreldhuis. ” – John Lewis

32. “Die letsels en vlekke van rassisme is nog steeds diep ingebed in die Amerikaanse samelewing. ” – John Lewis


Ongeveer

Die John Spedan Lewis Foundation (JSLF) fokus op die persoonlike belange van John Spedan Lewis (1885 – 1963), die stigter van die John Lewis Partnership (John Lewis & amp Partners en Waitrose & amp Partners) wat 'n kranige natuurkundige was. Die JSLF is in 1964 gestig ná die dood van Spedan.

Deur middel van klein toekennings wat tydens ons tweejaarlikse vergaderings toegeken word, ondersteun ons Britse geregistreerde liefdadigheidsorganisasies met natuurgeskiedenis, natuurbewaring en tuinbou onder hul verklaarde liefdadigheidsdoelwitte, en bly die belange van John Spedan Lewis voort.

Vandag word die JSLF bestuur deur die JLP -voorsitter en die voorsitter van die vennootskapsraad (as voorsitter en ex officio onderskeidelik trustee), 'n sekretaris en drie bykomende trustees: een verkies deur die demokratiese proses van die Partnership Council, en twee eksterne trustees wat deur die raad gewerf is, wat kundigheid uit die wêreld van natuurgeskiedenis en biologiese wetenskappe bring.

Die JSLF Raad van Trustees vergader twee keer per jaar om finansiering van beroepe van geregistreerde Britse liefdadigheidsorganisasies te oorweeg.

Die JSLF aanvaar beroepe van Britse geregistreerde liefdadigheidsorganisasies waarvoor natuurgeskiedenis -onderwerpe uitdruklik onder hul liefdadigheidsdoeleindes vermeld word, insluitend natuurbewaring, entomologie, ornitologie en tuinbou.

Die Stigting borg ook elke drie tot vier jaar 'n doktorale studente.


John Lewis en Good Trouble

Vir John Lewis was aktivisme vir sosiale verandering 'n gemeenskaplike aktiwiteit. Hy het geglo dat mense wat bymekaar kom om te mentor, te protesteer en te leer 'n samelewing kan skep waarin hulle wil leef, wat dr. Martin Luther King jr. En ander die 'geliefde gemeenskap' noem. Om die gemeenskap te skep, vereis volharding, optimisme en die bereidwilligheid om dit wat hy noem, 'goeie moeilikheid, nodige moeilikheid' te maak.

John Lewis spreek jong leiers toe tydens 'n opvoering van die museum se Join the Student Sit-Ins-program.

Lewis is gebore in die landelike Alabama, en sy gesin, onderwysers en die Swart kerk was sy vroegste mentors en beskermers. Hulle het sy gevoel van self gevoed terwyl hy grootgeword het in 'n nasie wat Afro -Amerikaners stelselmatig verneder en onderdruk het. In 'n onderhoud van 1979 onthou Lewis dat hy geluister het na die ervarings van sy "pa, en my oom, en my oupa en grootouers" oor hul daaglikse ontmoetings met rassediskriminasie en blanke oppergesag. Hy was 'n tiener toe Emmett Till in Mississippi vermoor is, en onthou in sy outobiografie dat hy gedink het: 'Daardie kon ek gewees het, geslaan, gemartel, dood, aan die onderkant van 'n rivier. "

Foto van Emmett Till saam met sy ma, Mamie Till Mobley.

Lewis is geïnspireer deur Montgomery, die Afro -Amerikaanse gemeenskap van Alabama, wat geëis het dat rasseskeiding op die busse van die stad beëindig moet word en die stelsel vir meer as 'n jaar geboikot moet word. Hy het aan 'n onderhoudvoerder gesê dat hy as gevolg van hierdie ervarings 'grootgeword het met die gevoel dat ek 'n manier moet vind om hierdie stelsel van segregasie, rassediskriminasie teen te staan'.

Toe hy die huis verlaat om die American Baptist Theological Seminary (nou American Baptist College) in Nashville, Tennessee, by te woon, was Lewis van plan om die bediening te betree. Hy het probeer om 'n tak van die NAACP by die skool te stig, maar die administrasie van die kweekskool het hierdie plan in die wiele gery.

Op soek na 'n manier vir sy aktivisme, het Lewis sy aansoek om oorplasing by die Troy State University ingedien. Hy sou die voorbeeld volg van Autherine Lucy, wat oproerige skares trotseer het toe sy probeer het om die Universiteit van Alabama in 1956 te onttrek. Lewis het advies by dr. King ingewin en 'n vennootskap aangegaan wat sou duur tot die moord op King. Lewis trek sy aansoek onwillig terug by die staat Troy, uit kommer dat wit oppergesagters sy gesin uit hul land sou verdryf - of erger nog.

Met sy terugkeer na Nashville, het John Lewis die werkswinkels van dominee James Lawson begin bywoon oor die teorieë en die praktyk van gewelddadige weerstand teen onreg. Die deelnemers aan die werkswinkel vorm die kern van die Nashville Studentebeweging. Onder leiding van Diane Nash het aktiviste, waaronder Lewis, James Bevel, Bernard Lafayette, Marion Berry en die jong predikant dominee C.T. Vivian het bekend geword vir hul verbintenis tot geweldloosheid en moed. Hul eerste veldtog het die stad se ras-geskeide middagete in 1959 getoets. 'N Paar maande later, in 1960, het Lewis en ander deelgeneem aan 'n lang veldtog van insittendes in die middestad van Nashville as deel van 'n nasionale golf van weerstand wat deur aktiviste wat geweier het, deelgeneem het. om 'n etenstafel alleen vir blankes in Greensboro, Noord-Carolina, te verlaat.

Te midde van die protesoptogte het die ervare organiseerder Ella Baker 'n vergadering vir kollege studente gehou, wat gelei het tot die stigting van die Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). SNCC sou etlike jare die tuiste van John Lewis wees, waar hy sy verbintenis tot verset verdiep het en beginsels van gemeenskapsorganisering geleer het.

'N Knoppie vir die koördinerende komitee vir studente

In 1961 begin die Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) met Freedom Rides. 'N Interras-groep aktiviste het slegs sitplekke, toilette, wagkamers en kafees in stasies en op busse wat tussen state gereis het, getrotseer. SNCC -aktiviste John Lewis en Hank Thomas het by die protes van CORE aangesluit. Toe CORE die betoging in Birmingham, Alabama, stopgesit het nadat hulle bomaanvalle en skaregeweld in die gesig gestaar het, het die Freedom Rides onder leiding van SNCC voortgegaan. Die rassistiese geweld het toegeneem en in Montgomery, Alabama, het 'n skare -aanval John Lewis en James Zwerg gehawend en bloedig gelaat. Die Freedom Rides het voortgegaan totdat Lewis en meer as 300 ander Freedom Riders in Jackson, Mississippi, gearresteer is. Lewis was een van die mense wat in die berugte Parchman -gevangenis in die staat opgesluit was.

'N Bekersskoot van John Lewis, geneem na sy arrestasie in Jackson, Mississippi, as 'n Freedom Rider. Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission Records, Mississippi Department of Archives and History.

Die volgende jaar het hy na Kaïro, Illinois, gebring, waar hy en ander SNCC -aktiviste saam met moedige plaaslike aktiviste gewerk het wat geëis het dat die swembad, restaurante en ander fasiliteite hul deure vir alle inwoners van die stad oopmaak, ongeag ras.

Hierdie plakkaat van 1963 vir die koördinerende komitee vir studente bevat 'n Danny Lyon -foto van Lewis en ander leiers wat bid terwyl hulle teen rasseskeiding in Kaïro, IL, protesteer.

In 1963 word Lewis verkies tot die voorsitter van die SNCC. In hierdie rol word hy die jongste lid van die groep wat die March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom beplan. Die oorspronklike toespraak wat Lewis vir die optog geskryf het, verteenwoordig die standpunte van SNCC, wat kritiek uitgespreek het oor die burgerregterekord van die Kennedy -administrasie. Om die ander optogorganiseerders te akkommodeer, het Lewis 'n afgetrede toespraak gelewer wat luisteraars daaraan herinner het: 'Ons moet in hierdie rewolusie ingaan en die revolusie voltooi. In die Delta van Mississippi, in Suidwes -Georgië, in die Black Belt van Alabama, in Harlem, in Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia en oral in hierdie land, is die swart massas op pad na werk en vryheid. ”

Die program vir en 'n wimpel van die March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, waarop Lewis 'n spreker was.

Talle burgerregte -organisasies het betrokke geraak by Selma, die omstrede stryd om stemreg in Alabama. In Februarie 1965 vermoor die polisie die plaaslike aktivis Jimmie Lee Jackson, en die gemeenskap beplan 'n optog ter ere van hom na Montgomery, die hoofstad van die staat. John Lewis en Hosea Williams het ooreengekom om die optog oor die Edmund Pettus -brug in die stad te lei. Wetstoepassers het die betogers met traangas, swepe en knuppels ontmoet en hulle gewelddadig geslaan. Lewis het 'n skedelbreuk opgedoen.

'N Maart 1965 Life Magazine, met 'n voorbladfoto van Bloody Sunday. John Lewis lei die optoggangers.

Verskille en spanning in die SNCC het lank reeds aan die broei gekom, en in 1966 het die lidmaatskap van SNCC John Lewis as voorsitter uitgestem en hom vervang deur Stokely Carmichael, 'n jong aktivis wie se voetsoolwerk in Lowndes County, Alabama, die vertroue van baie SNCC's gekry het rang-en-lêer lede. Lewis wend hom tot ander vorme van aktivisme en verbind gemeenskappe met hulpbronne. Hy vestig hom in Atlanta, waar hy die res van sy lewe sou woon, en trou met Lillian Miles, 'n bibliotekaris aan die Universiteit van Atlanta. Saam sou hulle hul seun, John-Miles Lewis, grootmaak.

'N Plakkaat geborg deur die kiesersopvoedingsprojek wat burgers aanmoedig om te registreer en te stem. Die Stemopvoedingsprojek het in 1962 begin en het fondse ingesamel en versprei aan burgerregtegroepe, veral in die suidelike state, in 'n poging om burgers te registreer sodat hulle tydens die verkiesingstyd kon stem.

Lewis het stemme as 'n noodsaaklike deel van die burgerlike lewe beskou. Van 1970 tot 1977 was hy uitvoerende direkteur van die Voter Education Project en gebruik hy die platform om Afro -Amerikaanse kiesers in die Suide te organiseer om hul regte as burgers uit te oefen. In 1972 het die National Museum of History and Technology (nou die National Museum of American History) geskep Die reg om te stem, 'n uitstalling wat bedoel is om die dramatiese uitbreiding van stemreg as gevolg van die burgerregtebeweging en die grondwetlike wysiging wat die stemmingsouderdom tot 18. verlaag het, aan te dui. Lewis het by die opening gepraat.

John Lewis by die opening van "The Right to Vote". Met vergunning van Smithsonian Institution Archives.

Lewis het geleidelik sy weg na die verkiesingspolitiek gemaak, wat volgens hom 'n effektiewe manier kon wees om 'n meer gelyke nasie te skep. Na 'n onsuksesvolle kandidaat vir die kongres en in die stadsraad van Atlanta, word hy in 1986 verkies tot die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers, waar hy tot sy dood beklee het. Hy het vir sy plaaslike kiesers gewerk, maar ook nasionale en internasionale kwessies aangespreek, waaronder die Verenigde State se steun aan die apartheidsregering in Suid -Afrika. Lewis het ook sy idee van burgerregte uitgebrei tot ondersteuning vir vroueregte en LGBTQ+ -regte.

Drie plakkate uit die versameling, wat verskillende oorsake verteenwoordig waarvoor John Lewis baklei het.

Gedurende sy hele lewe was Lewis bereid om sy ervarings met jong mense te deel, maar ook om daaruit te leer. By geleenthede soos die National Museum of American History se National Youth Summit en 'n simposium ter herdenking van die 50ste herdenking van die Greensboro-middagete, het Lewis jongmense aangemoedig om optimisties te wees, 'n gemeenskap op te bou en onreg te beveg.

John Lewis kruis sy arms en sing "We Shall Overcome" tydens ons 2011 National Youth Summit met die fokus op Freedom Rides. Burgerregte -aktiviste en leiers soos Lewis het die rol van jongmense in die vorming van Amerika se verlede en toekoms gedeel. Klik op die prentjie vir verwante opvoedkundige hulpbronne.

John Lewis se laaste openbare verskyning kom in Junie 2020, naby Lafayette Park in Washington, DC, waar die weermag vreedsame betogers gewelddadig versprei het oor die moord op George Floyd. Lewis vertel Washington Post verslaggewer Jonathan Capehart dat, "Dit was so ontroerend en so verblydend om te sien hoe mense van regoor Amerika en oor die hele wêreld deur hul optrede sê: 'Ek kan iets doen. Ek kan iets sê. ” Selfs in die laaste hoofstuk van sy lewe het hy hom steeds toegewy aan die ideale wat so nou met hom verband hou: optimisme, toewyding om die geliefde gemeenskap te skep en die belangrikheid daarvan om in "goeie moeilikheid, nodige moeilikheid" te kom.

'N Black Lives Matter -plakkaat, versamel in 2017.

Modupe Labode is 'n kurator by die National Museum of American History.


Inhoud

John Robert Lewis is gebore naby Troy, Alabama, op 21 Februarie 1940, die derde van tien kinders van Willie Mae (née Carter) en Eddie Lewis. [2] [3] Sy ouers was deelnemers in die landelike Pike County, Alabama, waarvan Troy die setel was. [4] [5]

As seuntjie wou Lewis 'n prediker word, [6] en op vyfjarige ouderdom preek hy vir die gesin se hoenders op die plaas. [7] As 'n jong kind het Lewis min interaksie met wit mense gehad, aangesien sy graaf 'n groot persentasie swart was en sy gesin as boere gewerk het. Toe hy ses was, het Lewis slegs twee wit mense in sy lewe gesien. [8] Lewis onthou "Ek het grootgeword in die landelike Alabama, baie arm, baie min boeke in ons huis." [9] Hy beskryf sy vroeë opvoeding by 'n skooltjie, op loopafstand van sy huis. "'N Pragtige klein gebou, dit was 'n Rosenwald -skool. Dit is ondersteun deur die gemeenskap, dit was die enigste skool wat ons gehad het." [10] "Ek het 'n wonderlike onderwyser op laerskool gehad, en sy het vir my gesê 'lees my kind, lees!' En ek het probeer om alles te lees. Ek was mal oor boeke. Ek onthou dat ek in 1956, toe ek 16 was, saam met 'n paar van my broers en susters en neefs na die openbare biblioteek gegaan het, 'n biblioteekkaart wou kry, en ons was het gesê die biblioteek is slegs vir blankes en nie vir kleurlinge nie. " [11] Namate hy ouer geword het, het hy saam met sy gesin na Troy begin reis, waar hy steeds ervaring gehad het met rassisme en segregasie. [12] [13] [14] Lewis het familielede gehad wat in noordelike stede gewoon het, en hy het by hulle geleer dat skole, busse en besighede in die noorde geïntegreer is. Toe Lewis 11 was, het 'n oom hom na Buffalo, New York, geneem, waar hy deeglik bewus geword het van die kontras met Troy se segregasie. [15]

In 1955 het Lewis vir die eerste keer Martin Luther King Jr. op die radio gehoor, [16] en hy het later dieselfde jaar King's Montgomery -busboikot gevolg. [17] Op 15 -jarige ouderdom het Lewis sy eerste openbare preek gehou. [7] Op 17 ontmoet Lewis Rosa Parks, opvallend vir haar rol in die busboikot, en ontmoet King vir die eerste keer op 18 -jarige ouderdom. [18] In latere jare erken Lewis ook evangelis Billy Graham, 'n vriend van King's, as iemand wat "gehelp het om my te verander". [19] [20] Lewis het ook gesê dat Graham hom "in 'n aansienlike mate" geïnspireer het om sy aspirasies om minister te word, te vervul. [19] [20]

Nadat hy aan King geskryf het dat hy toegang tot die Troy -universiteit in Alabama geweier word, is Lewis uitgenooi om met hom te vergader. King, wat na Lewis verwys het as "die seun uit Troy", het die dagvaarding van die universiteit bespreek vir diskriminasie, maar hy het Lewis gewaarsku dat dit sy gesin in Troy in gevaar kan stel. Nadat hy dit met sy ouers bespreek het, besluit Lewis in plaas daarvan om voort te gaan met sy opleiding aan 'n klein, histories swart kollege in Tennessee. [21]

Lewis studeer aan die American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville, Tennessee, en word as 'n Baptiste -predikant georden. [7] [6] Daarna behaal hy 'n baccalaureusgraad in godsdiens en filosofie aan die Fisk Universiteit, ook 'n histories swart kollege, waar hy lid was van die Phi Beta Sigma -broederskap. [22] [23]

Nashville Studente Beweging Wysig

As student het Lewis 'n aktivis geword in die burgerregtebeweging. Hy organiseer sit-ins by afgesonderde middagete in Nashville en neem deel aan baie ander burgerregte-aktiwiteite as deel van die Nashville Studentebeweging. Die sit-in-beweging in Nashville was verantwoordelik vir die desegregasie van middagete in die stad. Lewis is tydens die gewelddadige aktiwiteite baie keer gearresteer en in die tronk gestop om die besighede in die stad te skei. [24] Hy het ook 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die organisering van busboikotte en ander gewelddadige protesoptredes ter ondersteuning van stemreg en rassegelykheid. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Gedurende hierdie tyd het Lewis gesê dat dit belangrik is om 'goeie probleme, noodsaaklike probleme' te beoefen om verandering te bewerkstellig, en hy het sy hele lewe lank by die frase en filosofie gehou. [25]

Terwyl hy 'n student was, is Lewis genooi om nie -geweld -werkswinkels by te woon wat gehou is by Clark Memorial United Methodist Church deur eerwaarde James Lawson en eerwaarde Kelly Miller Smith. Lewis en ander studente het hom toegewy aan die dissipline en filosofie van geweldloosheid, wat hy die res van sy lewe beoefen het. [26]

Freedom Riders Wysig

In 1961 word Lewis een van die 13 oorspronklike Freedom Riders. [4] [27] Die groep van sewe swartes en ses blankes was van plan om met die interstate -busse van Washington, DC na New Orleans te ry om die beleid van die suidelike state langs die roete uit te daag wat gesegregeerde sitplekke op die busse opgelê het, in stryd met die federale beleid vir interstaatlike vervoer. Die Freedom Ride, wat ontstaan ​​het deur die Fellowship of Reconciliation en herleef het deur James Farmer en die Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), is begin om die federale regering te druk om die uitspraak van die Hooggeregshof af te dwing in Boynton v. Virginia (1960) wat gesegregeerde interstate busse as ongrondwetlik verklaar het. Die Freedom Rides onthul die passiwiteit van plaaslike, staats- en federale regerings in die lig van geweld teen wetsgehoorsame burgers. [28] Die projek is bekend gemaak en organiseerders het die departement van justisie daarvan in kennis gestel. Dit was afhanklik van die Alabama -polisie om die ruiters te beskerm, hoewel die staat bekend was vir berugte rassisme. Dit het nie aksies onderneem nie, behalwe om FBI -agente toe te wys om voorvalle op te teken. Nadat uiterste geweld in Suid-Carolina en Alabama uitgebreek het, het die Kennedy-administrasie 'n afkoelperiode gevra, met 'n moratorium op Freedom Rides. [29]

In die Suide is Lewis en ander nie -gewelddadige Freedom Riders deur woedende skare geslaan en in hegtenis geneem. Op 21 -jarige ouderdom was Lewis die eerste van die Freedom Riders wat in Rock Hill, Suid -Carolina, aangerand is. Toe hy in 'n wagkamer probeer kom, het twee wit mans hom aangeval en sy gesig beseer en hom in die ribbes geskop. Twee weke later sluit Lewis aan by 'n 'Freedom Ride' wat na Jackson, Mississippi, is. Aan die einde van sy lewe het Lewis oor hierdie tyd gesê: "Ons was vasbeslote om nie toe te laat dat enige geweld ons van ons doel afhou nie. Ons het geweet dat ons lewens bedreig kan word, maar ons het besluit om nie terug te keer nie. " [30] As gevolg van sy Freedom Rider -aktiwiteite was Lewis 40 dae in die berugte Mississippi State Penitentiary in Sunflower County. [31]

In 'n onderhoud met CNN tydens die 40ste herdenking van die Freedom Rides, vertel Lewis die geweld wat hy en die 12 ander oorspronklike Freedom Riders verduur het. In Birmingham is die Riders geslaan deur 'n onbeperkte skare waaronder KKK -lede (in kennis gestel van hul aankoms deur die polisie) met bofbalvlermuise, kettings, loodpype en klippe. Die polisie het hulle gearresteer en hulle oor die grens na Tennessee gelei voordat hulle hulle laat gaan het. Die ruiters herorganiseer en ry na Montgomery, waar hulle meer geweld teëgekom het. [32] Daar is Lewis met 'n houtkrat in die kop geslaan. "Dit was baie gewelddadig. Ek het gedink ek gaan dood. Ek het bewusteloos by die Greyhound -busstasie in Montgomery gelê", het Lewis gesê en die voorval onthou. [33]

Toe CORE weens die geweld opgee met die Freedom Ride, het Lewis en mede -aktivis Diane Nash gereël dat Nashville -studente van Fisk en ander kolleges dit kon oorneem en tot 'n suksesvolle gevolgtrekking kon bring. [34] [35]

In Februarie 2009, 48 jaar na die Montgomery -aanval, het Lewis 'n nasionale verskoning ontvang op televisie van Elwin Wilson, 'n wit suidelike en voormalige Klansman. [36] [37]

Lewis het in 2015 geskryf dat hy die jong aktiviste Michael Schwerner en Andrew Goodman uit New York geken het. Hulle, saam met James Chaney, 'n plaaslike Afro-Amerikaanse aktivis uit Mississippi, is in Junie 1964 in Neshoba County, Mississippi, ontvoer en vermoor deur lede van die Ku Klux Klan, insluitend wetstoepassing. [38]

SNCC voorsitter Edit

Eksterne video
'Interview with John Lewis' pt.1 wat in 1979 vir Amerika gehou is, They Loved You Madly, 'n voorloper van Eyes on the Prize waarin hy die sit-ins in Nashville bespreek, die filosofie van geweldloosheid, die Freedom Rides, sy rol in SNCC, en die Maart oor Washington.

In 1963, toe Charles McDew uittree as voorsitter van die Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), is Lewis, 'n stigterslid, gekies om oor te neem. [39] [40] Lewis se ervaring is reeds wyd gerespekteer. Sy moed en hardnekkige nakoming van die filosofie van versoening en geweldloosheid het hom in staat gestel om as 'n leier na vore te kom. Hy is reeds 24 keer in die gewelddadige beweging vir gelyke geregtigheid gearresteer. [41] As voorsitter van die SNCC, was Lewis een van die "Big Six" -leiers wat die somer die optog op Washington gereël het. Die jongste, [42], was hy as die vierde aan die woord, voor die laaste spreker, dr. Martin Luther King. Ander leiers was Whitney Young, A. Philip Randolph, James Farmer en Roy Wilkins.

Lewis het 'n antwoord op Kennedy se wetsontwerp op burgerregte van 1963 geskryf. Lewis en sy mede -SNCC -werkers het gebuk gegaan onder die passiwiteit van die federale regering in die lig van geweld in die suide. [29] Hy was van plan om die wetsontwerp van Kennedy aan die kaak te stel omdat hy nie Afro -Amerikaners beskerming teen polisiewreedheid verleen het nie, of om Afro -Amerikaners die nodige stemme te gee, wat hy die wetsontwerp as "te min en te laat" beskryf het. Maar toe afskrifte van die toespraak op 27 Augustus versprei is, het die ander voorsitters van die optog daarop aangedring dat dit hersien moet word. James Forman skryf Lewis se toespraak tydens 'n program op 'n draagbare tikmasjien in 'n klein voorkamer agter Lincoln se standbeeld. Hy het Lewis se aanvanklike bewering "ons kan nie, die [Kennedy] wetsontwerp op burgerregte van harte ondersteun" vervang deur "Ons ondersteun dit met groot voorbehoude." [43]

Ná Lewis het dr. King sy nou gevierde toespraak "I Have a Dream" gehou. [44] [45] [46] Historikus Howard Zinn het later oor hierdie geleentheid geskryf:

Tydens die groot Washington -mars van 1963 was die voorsitter van die Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), John Lewis, met dieselfde enorme skare wat [daarna] King se toespraak "I Have a Dream" gehoor het, bereid om die regte vraag te stel : 'Aan watter kant is die federale regering?' Die ander organiseerders van die Maart het daardie vonnis uit sy toespraak uitgeskakel om die Kennedy -administrasie te beledig.

In 1964 open SNCC Freedom Schools, begin die Mississippi Freedom Summer vir kiesersopvoeding en registrasie. [47] Lewis het die SNCC se pogings vir Freedom Summer gekoördineer, 'n veldtog om swart kiesers in Mississippi te registreer en om studente -aktiviste by te staan ​​om die veldtog te ondersteun. Lewis het deur die land gereis en studente aangemoedig om hul somervakansie deur te bring om mense te help stem in Mississippi, wat die laagste aantal swart kiesers en sterk weerstand teen die beweging gehad het. [48]

In 1965 organiseer Lewis 'n paar van die pogings om die kieserregistrasie te organiseer tydens die Selma -stemregteveldtog in 1965, en word nasionaal bekend tydens sy prominente rol in die Selma na Montgomery -optogte. [49] On March 7, 1965 – a day that would become known as "Bloody Sunday" – Lewis and fellow activist Hosea Williams led over 600 marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama. At the end of the bridge and the city-county boundary, they were met by Alabama State Troopers who ordered them to disperse. When the marchers stopped to pray, the police discharged tear gas and mounted troopers charged the demonstrators, beating them with nightsticks. Lewis's skull was fractured, but he was aided in escaping across the bridge to Brown Chapel, a church in Selma that served as the movement's headquarters. [50] Lewis bore scars on his head from this incident for the rest of his life. [51]

Lewis served as SNCC chairman until 1966, when he was replaced by Stokely Carmichael. [52] [53]

In 1966, Lewis moved to New York City to take a job as the associate director of the Field Foundation. [54] [55] He was there a little over a year before moving back to Atlanta to direct the Southern Regional Council's Community Organization Project. [56] [55] During his time with the SRC, he completed his degree from Fisk University. [57]

In 1970, Lewis became the director of the Voter Education Project (VEP), a position he held until 1977. [58] Though initially a project of the Southern Regional Council, the VEP became an independent organization in 1971. [59] Despite difficulties caused by the 1973–1975 recession, [59] the VEP added nearly four million minority voters to the rolls under Lewis's leadership. [60] During his tenure, the VEP expanded its mission, including running Voter Mobilization Tours. [59]

In January 1977, incumbent Democratic U.S. Congressman Andrew Young of Georgia's 5th congressional district resigned to become the U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. under President Jimmy Carter. In the March 1977 open primary, Atlanta City Councilman Wyche Fowler ranked first with 40% of the vote, failing to reach the 50% threshold to win outright. Lewis ranked second with 29% of the vote. [61] In the April election, Fowler defeated Lewis 62%–38%. [62]

After his unsuccessful bid, Lewis accepted a position with the Carter administration as associate director of ACTION, responsible for running the VISTA program, the Retired Senior Volunteer Program, and the Foster Grandparent Program. He held that job for two and a half years, resigning as the 1980 election approached. [63]

In 1981, Lewis ran for an at-large seat on the Atlanta City Council. He won with 69% of the vote, [64] and served on the council until 1986. [65]

Elections Edit

1986 Edit

After nine years as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Fowler gave up the seat to make a successful run for the U.S. Senate. Lewis decided to run for the 5th district again. In the August Democratic primary, where a victory was considered tantamount to election, State Representative Julian Bond ranked first with 47%, just three points shy of winning outright. Lewis finished in second place with 35%. [66] In the run-off, Lewis pulled an upset against Bond, defeating him 52% to 48%. [67] The race was said to have "badly strained relations in Atlanta's black community" as many Black leaders had supported Bond over Lewis. [68] Lewis was "endorsed by the Atlanta newspapers and a favorite of the white liberal establishment". [69] His victory was due to strong results among white voters (a minority in the district). [69] During the campaign, he ran advertisements accusing Bond of corruption, implying that Bond used cocaine, and suggesting that Bond had lied about his civil rights activism. [69]

In the November general election, Lewis defeated Republican Portia Scott 75% to 25%. [70]

1988–2018 Edit

Lewis was reelected 16 times, dropping below 70 percent of the vote in the general election only once in 1994, when he defeated Republican Dale Dixon by a 38-point margin, 69%–31%. [71] He ran unopposed in 1996, [72] 2004, [73] 2006, [74] and 2008, [75] and again in 2014 and 2018. [76] [77]

He was challenged in the Democratic primary just twice: in 1992 and 2008. In 1992, he defeated State Representative Mable Thomas 76%–24%. [78] In 2008, Thomas decided to challenge Lewis again Markel Hutchins also contested the race. Lewis defeated Hutchins and Thomas 69%–16%–15%. [79]

Tenure Edit

Oorsig Redigeer

Lewis represented Georgia's 5th congressional district, one of the most consistently Democratic districts in the nation. Since its formalization in 1845, the district has been represented by a Democrat for most of its history.

Lewis was one of the most liberal congressmen to have represented a district in the Deep South. He was categorized as a "Hard-Core Liberal" by On the Issues. [80] Die Washington Post described Lewis in 1998 as "a fiercely partisan Democrat but . also fiercely independent". [81] Lewis characterized himself as a strong and adamant liberal. [81] Die Atlanta Journal-Constitution said Lewis was the "only former major civil rights leader who extended his fight for human rights and racial reconciliation to the halls of Congress". [82] Die Atlanta Journal-Constitution also said that to "those who know him, from U.S. senators to 20-something congressional aides", he is called the "conscience of Congress". [82] Lewis cited Florida Senator and later Representative Claude Pepper, a staunch liberal, as being the colleague whom he most admired. [83] Lewis also spoke out in support of gay rights and national health insurance. [81]

Lewis opposed the 1991 Gulf War, [84] [85] and the 2000 U.S. trade agreement with China that passed the House. [86] He opposed the Clinton administration on NAFTA and welfare reform. [81] After welfare reform passed, Lewis was described as outraged he said, "Where is the sense of decency? What does it profit a great nation to conquer the world, only to lose its soul?" [87] In 1994, when Clinton considered invading Haiti, Lewis opposed armed intervention. [88] When Clinton sent troops to Haiti, he called for supporting the troops [89] In 1998, when Clinton was considering a military strike against Iraq, Lewis said he would back the president if American forces were ordered into action. [90] In 2001, three days after the September 11 attacks, Lewis voted to give President George W. Bush authority to use force against the perpetrators of 9/11 in a vote that was 420–1 Lewis called it probably one of his toughest votes. [91] In 2002, he sponsored the Peace Tax Fund bill, a conscientious objection to military taxation initiative that had been reintroduced yearly since 1972. [92] Lewis was a "fierce partisan critic of President Bush", and an early opponent of the Iraq war. [82] [93] The Associated Press said he was "the first major House figure to suggest impeaching George W. Bush", arguing that the president "deliberately, systematically violated the law" in authorizing the National Security Agency to conduct wiretaps without a warrant. Lewis said, "He is not king, he is president." [94]

Lewis drew on his historical involvement in the Civil Rights Movement as part of his politics. He made an annual pilgrimage to Alabama to retrace the route he marched in 1965 from Selma to Montgomery – a route Lewis worked to make part of the Historic National Trails program. That trip became "one of the hottest tickets in Washington among lawmakers, Republican and Democrat, eager to associate themselves with Lewis and the movement. 'We don't deliberately set out to win votes, but it's very helpful", Lewis said of the trip'." [82] [95] In recent years, however, Faith and Politics Institute drew criticism for selling seats on the trip to lobbyists for at least $25,000 each. According to the Center for Public Integrity, even Lewis said that he would feel "much better" if the institute's funding came from churches and foundations instead of corporations. [96]

On June 3, 2011, the House passed a resolution 268–145, calling for a withdrawal of the United States military from the air and naval operations in and around Libya. [97] Lewis voted against the resolution. [98]

In a 2002 op-ed, Lewis mentioned a response by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to an anti-Zionist student at a 1967 Harvard meeting, quoting "When people criticize Zionists they mean Jews, you are talking anti-Semitism." In describing the special relationship between African Americans and American Jews in working for liberation and peace, he also gave other statements by King to the same effect, including one from March 25, 1968: "Peace for Israel means security, and we must stand with all our might to protect its right to exist, its territorial integrity. I see Israel as one of the great outposts of democracy in the world, and a marvelous example of what can be done, how desert land can be transformed into an oasis of brotherhood and democracy. Peace for Israel means security and that security must be a reality." [99]

Lewis "strongly disagreed" with the movement for Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) against Israel and co-sponsored resolution condemning the pro-Palestinian group, but he supported Representatives Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib's House resolution opposing U.S. anti-boycott legislation banning the boycott of Israel. He explained his support as "a simple demonstration of my ongoing commitment to the ability of every American to exercise the fundamental First Amendment right to protest through nonviolent actions". [100]

Protests Edit

In January 2001, Lewis boycotted the inauguration of George W. Bush by staying in his Atlanta district. He did not attend the swearing-in because he did not believe Bush was the true elected president. [101] Later, Lewis joined 30 other House Democrats who voted to not count the 20 electoral votes from Ohio in the 2004 presidential election. [102]

In March 2003, Lewis spoke to a crowd of 30,000 in Oregon during an anti-war protest before the start of the Iraq War. [103] In 2006 [104] and 2009 he was arrested for protesting against the genocide in Darfur outside the Sudanese embassy. [105] He was one of eight U.S. Representatives, from six states, arrested while holding a sit-in near the west side of the U.S. Capitol building, to advocate for immigration reform. [106]

2008 presidential election Edit

At first, Lewis supported Hillary Clinton, endorsing her presidential campaign on October 12, 2007. [107] On February 14, 2008, however, he announced he was considering withdrawing his support from Clinton and might instead cast his superdelegate vote for Barack Obama: "Something is happening in America and people are prepared and ready to make that great leap." [108] Ben Smith of Politiek said that "it would be a seminal moment in the race if John Lewis were to switch sides." [109]

On February 27, 2008, Lewis formally changed his support and endorsed Obama. [110] [111] After Obama clinched the Democratic nomination for president, Lewis said "If someone had told me this would be happening now, I would have told them they were crazy, out of their mind, they didn't know what they were talking about . I just wish the others were around to see this day. . To the people who were beaten, put in jail, were asked questions they could never answer to register to vote, it's amazing." [112] Despite switching his support to Obama, Lewis' support of Clinton for several months led to criticism from his constituents. One of his challengers in the House primary election set up campaign headquarters inside the building that served as Obama's Georgia office. [113]

In October 2008, Lewis issued a statement criticizing the presidential campaign of John McCain and his running mate Sarah Palin and accusing them of "sowing the seeds of hatred and division" in a way that brought to mind the late Gov. George Wallace and "another destructive period" in American political history. McCain said he was "saddened" by the criticism from "a man I've always admired", and called on Obama to repudiate Lewis' statement. Obama responded to the statement, saying that he "does not believe that John McCain or his policy criticism is in any way comparable to George Wallace or his segregationist policies". [114] Lewis later issued a follow-up statement clarifying that he had not compared McCain and Palin to Wallace himself, but rather that his earlier statement was a "reminder to all Americans that toxic language can lead to destructive behavior". [115]

On an African American being elected president, he said:

If you ask me whether the election . is the fulfillment of Dr. King's dream, I say, 'No, it's just a down payment.' There's still too many people 50 years later, there's still too many people that are being left out and left behind. [116]

After Obama's swearing-in ceremony as president, Lewis asked him to sign a commemorative photograph of the event. Obama signed it, "Because of you, John. Barack Obama." [117]

2016 firearm safety legislation sit-in Edit

On June 22, 2016, House Democrats, led by Lewis and Massachusetts Representative Katherine Clark, began a sit-in demanding House Speaker Paul Ryan allow a vote on gun-safety legislation in the aftermath of the Orlando nightclub shooting. Speaker pro tempore Daniel Webster ordered the House into recess, but Democrats refused to leave the chamber for nearly 26 hours. [118]

National African American Museum Edit

In 1988, the year after he was sworn into Congress, Lewis introduced a bill to create a national African American museum in Washington. The bill failed, and for 15 years he continued to introduce it with each new Congress. Each time it was blocked in the Senate, most often by conservative Southern Senator Jesse Helms. In 2003, Helms retired. The bill won bipartisan support, and President George W. Bush signed the bill to establish the museum, with the Smithsonian's Board of Regents to establish the location. The National Museum of African American History and Culture, located adjacent to the Washington Memorial, held its opening ceremony on September 25, 2016. [119]

2016 presidential election Edit

Lewis supported Hillary Clinton in the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries against Bernie Sanders. Regarding Sanders' role in the civil rights movement, Lewis remarked "To be very frank, I never saw him, I never met him. I chaired the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee for three years, from 1963 to 1966. I was involved in sit-ins, in the Freedom Rides, the March on Washington, the March from Selma to Montgomery. but I met Hillary Clinton". Former Congressman and Hawaii Governor Neil Abercrombie wrote a letter to Lewis expressing his disappointment with Lewis' comments about Sanders. Lewis later clarified his statement, saying "During the late 1950s and 1960s when I was more engaged, [Sanders] was not there. I did not see him around. I have never seen him in the South. But if he was there, if he was involved someplace, I was not aware of it. The fact that I did not meet him in the movement does not mean I doubted that Senator Sanders participated in the civil rights movement, neither was I attempting to disparage his activism." [120] [121] [122]

In a January 2016 interview, Lewis compared Donald Trump, then the Republican front-runner for the presidential nomination, to former Alabama Governor George Wallace: "I've been around a while and Trump reminds me so much of a lot of the things that George Wallace said and did. I think demagogues are pretty dangerous, really. We shouldn't divide people, we shouldn't separate people." [123]

On January 13, 2017, during an interview with NBC's Chuck Todd for Ontmoet die pers, Lewis stated: "I don't see the president-elect as a legitimate president." [124] He added, "I think the Russians participated in having this man get elected, and they helped destroy the candidacy of Hillary Clinton. I don't plan to attend the Inauguration. I think there was a conspiracy on the part of the Russians, and others, that helped him get elected. That's not right. That's not fair. That's not the open, democratic process." [125] Trump replied on Twitter the following day, suggesting that Lewis should "spend more time on fixing and helping his district, which is in horrible shape and falling apart (not to [. ] mention crime infested) rather than falsely complaining about the election results", and accusing Lewis of being "All talk, talk, talk – no action or results. Sad!" [126] Trump's statement about Lewis' district was rated as "Mostly False" by PolitiFact, [127] and he was criticized for attacking a civil rights leader such as Lewis, especially one who was brutally beaten for the cause, and especially on Martin Luther King weekend. [128] [129] [130] Senator John McCain acknowledged Lewis as "an American hero" but criticized him, saying: "this is not the first time that Congressman Lewis has taken a very extreme stand and condemned without any shred of evidence for doing so an incoming president of the United States. This is a stain on Congressman Lewis's reputation – no one else's." [131]

A few days later, Lewis said that he would not attend Trump's inauguration because he did not believe that Trump was the true elected president. "It will be the first (inauguration) that I miss since I've been in Congress. You cannot be at home with something that you feel that is wrong, is not right", he said. Lewis had failed to attend George W. Bush's inauguration in 2001 because he believed that he too was not a legitimately elected president. Lewis' statement was rated as "Pants on Fire" by PolitiFact. [132] [133] [134]

2020 presidential election Edit

Lewis endorsed Joe Biden for president on April 7, 2020, a day before Biden effectively secured the Democratic nomination. He recommended Biden pick a woman of color as his running mate. [135]

Komitee -opdragte Wysig

Lewis served on the following Congressional committees at the time of his death: [136]

Caucus memberships Edit

Lewis was a member of over 40 caucuses, including: [137]

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Caucus (Co-Chair)
  • Congressional Structured Settlements Caucus (Co-Chair) [138][137][139]

In 1991, Lewis became the senior chief deputy whip in the Democratic caucus. [140]

Lewis's 1998 autobiography Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement, co-written with Mike D'Orso, won the Robert F. Kennedy Book Award, [141] the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, [142] the Christopher Award and the Lillian Smith Book Award. [143] It appeared on numerous bestseller lists, was selected as a New York Times Notable Book of the Year, [144] was named by the American Library Association as its Nonfiction Book of the Year, [145] and was included among Nuusweek magazine's 2009 list of "50 Books For Our Times". [146] It was critically acclaimed, with Die Washington Post calling it "the definitive account of the civil rights movement" [147] and the Los Angeles Times proclaiming it "destined to become a classic in civil rights literature". [148]

His life is also the subject of a 2002 book for young people, John Lewis: From Freedom Rider to Congressman. In 2012, Lewis released Across That Bridge, written with Brenda Jones, to mixed reviews. Publishers Weekly ' s review said, "At its best, the book provides a testament to the power of nonviolence in social movements. At its worst, it resembles an extended campaign speech." [149] [150]

Maart (2013) Edit

In 2013, Lewis became the first member of Congress to write a graphic novel, with the launch of a trilogy titled Maart. Die Maart trilogy is a black and white comics trilogy about the Civil Rights Movement, told through the perspective of civil rights leader and U.S. Congressman John Lewis. The first volume, March: Book One is written by Lewis and Andrew Aydin, illustrated and lettered by Nate Powell and was published in August 2013, [151] the second volume, March: Book Two was published in January 2015 and the final volume, March: Book Three was published in August 2016. [152]

In an August 2014 interview, Lewis cited the influence of a 1958 comic book, Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Story, on his decision to adapt his experience to the graphic novel format. [153] March: Book One became a number one New York Times bestseller for graphic novels [154] and spent more than a year on the lists.

March: Book One received an "Author Honor" from the American Library Association's 2014 Coretta Scott King Book Awards, which honors an African American author of a children's book. [155] Book One also became the first graphic novel to win a Robert F. Kennedy Book Award, receiving a "Special Recognition" bust in 2014. [156]

March: Book One was selected by first-year reading programs in 2014 at Michigan State University, [157] Georgia State University, [158] and Marquette University. [159]

March: Book Two was released in 2015 and immediately became both a New York Times and Washington Post bestseller for graphic novels.

The release of March: Book Three in August 2016 brought all three volumes into the top 3 slots of the New York Times bestseller list for graphic novels for 6 consecutive weeks. [160] The third volume was announced as the recipient of the 2017 Printz Award for excellence in young-adult literature, the Coretta Scott King Award, the YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction, the 2016 National Book Award in Young People's Literature, [161] and the Sibert Medal at the American Library Association's annual Midwinter Meeting in January 2017. [162]

Die Maart trilogy received the Carter G. Woodson Book Award in the Secondary (grades 7–12) category in 2017. [163]

Run (2018) Edit

In 2018, Lewis and Andrew Aydin co-wrote another graphic novel as a sequel to the Maart series entitled Run. The graphic novel picks up the events in Lewis's life after the passage of the Civil Rights Act. The authors teamed with award-winning comic book illustrator Afua Richardson for the book, which was originally scheduled to be released in August 2018 (but has since been rescheduled). [164] Nate Powell, who illustrated Maart, will also contribute to the art. [165]

Lewis met Lillian Miles at a New Year's Eve party hosted by Xernona Clayton. They married in 1968. In 1976, they adopted one son, named John-Miles Lewis. Lillian died on December 31, 2012. [166]

On December 29, 2019, Lewis announced that he had been diagnosed with stage IV pancreatic cancer. [167] [168] He remained in the Washington D.C. area for his treatment. Lewis stated: "I have been in some kind of fight – for freedom, equality, basic human rights – for nearly my entire life. I have never faced a fight quite like the one I have now." [169] [170]

On July 17, 2020, Lewis died at the age of 80 after an eight-month battle with the disease in Atlanta, [171] [172] [173] on the same day as his friend and fellow civil rights activist C.T. Vivian. [174] Lewis had been the final surviving "Big Six" civil rights icon.

Then President Donald Trump ordered all flags to be flown at half-staff in response to Lewis's death. [175] Condolences also came from the international community, with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, French President Emmanuel Macron, Irish President Michael D. Higgins among others, all memorializing Lewis. [176] [177]

Funeral services Edit

Public ceremonies honoring Lewis began in his hometown of Troy, Alabama at Troy University, which had denied him admission in 1957 due to racial segregation. Services were then held at the historic Brown Chapel AME Church in Selma, Alabama. [178] Calls to rename the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, in Lewis's honor grew after his death. [179] [180] On July 26, 2020, his casket, carried by a horse-drawn caisson, traveled the same route over the bridge that he walked during the Bloody Sunday march from Selma to Montgomery, [181] before his lying in state at the Alabama State Capitol in Montgomery. [182]

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell announced that Lewis would lie in state in the United States Capitol Rotunda on July 27 and 28, with a public viewing and procession through Washington, D.C. [183] He is the first African-American lawmaker to be so honored in the Rotunda in October 2019 his colleague, representative Elijah Cummings, lay in state in the Capitol Statuary Hall. [184] Health concerns related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic led to a decision to have his casket displayed outdoors on the East Front steps during the public viewing hours, rather than the usual line of people in the Rotunda filing past the casket to pay their respects. [185] [186] [187] On July 29, 2020, Lewis's casket left the U.S. Capitol and was transported back to Atlanta, Georgia, where he lay in state for a day at the Georgia State Capitol. [188]

Among the distinguished speakers at his final funeral service at Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church were former U.S. Presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, who gave the eulogy. Former President Jimmy Carter, unable to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic due to his advanced age, sent a statement to be read during the service. The then-current President Donald Trump did not attend the service. [189] Lewis's interment followed the service, at Atlanta's historic South-View Cemetery. [190]

Lewis penned an op-ed to the nation that was published in Die New York Times on the day of his funeral. [191] In it, he called on the younger generation to continue the work for justice and an end to hate. [192]

Lewis was honored by having the 1997 sculpture by Thornton Dial, The Bridge, placed at Ponce de Leon Avenue and Freedom Park, Atlanta, dedicated to him by the artist. In 1999, Lewis was awarded the Wallenberg Medal from the University of Michigan in recognition of his courageous lifelong commitment to the defense of civil and human rights. In that same year, he received the Four Freedoms Award for the Freedom of Speech. [193]

In 2001, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation awarded Lewis the Profile in Courage Award "for his extraordinary courage, leadership and commitment to civil rights". [194] It is a lifetime achievement award and has been given out only twice, John Lewis and William Winter (in 2008). The next year he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP. [195]

In 2004, Lewis received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement presented by Awards Council member James Earl Jones. [196] [197]

In 2006, he received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. [198] In September 2007, Lewis was awarded the Dole Leadership Prize from the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics at the University of Kansas. [199]

Lewis was the only living speaker from the March on Washington present on the stage during the inauguration of Barack Obama. Obama signed a commemorative photograph for Lewis with the words, "Because of you, John. Barack Obama." [117]

In 2010, Lewis was awarded the First LBJ Liberty and Justice for All Award, given to him by the Lyndon Baines Johnson Foundation, [200] and the next year, Lewis was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama. [201]

In 2016, it was announced that a future United States Navy underway replenishment oiler would be named USNS John Lewis. [202] Also in 2016, Lewis and fellow Selma marcher Frederick Reese accepted Congressional Gold Medals which were bestowed to the "foot soldiers" of the Selma marchers. [203] [204] The same year, Lewis was awarded the Liberty Medal at the National Constitution Center. The prestigious award has been awarded to international leaders from Malala Yousafzai to the 14th Dalai Lama, presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton and other dignitaries and visionaries. The timing of Lewis's award coincided with the 150th anniversary of the 14th amendment. [205] [206] [207] In 2020, Lewis was awarded the Walter P. Reuther Humanitarian Award by Wayne State University, the UAW, and the Reuther family. [208]

Lewis gave numerous commencement addresses, including at the School of Visual Arts (SVA) in 2014, [209] Bates College (in Lewiston, Maine) in 2016, [210] Bard College and Bank Street College of Education in 2017, and Harvard University in 2018. [211]

Lewis was recognized for his involvement with comics with the 2017 Inkpot Award. [212]

Lewis's death in July 2020 has given rise to support for renaming the historically significant Pettus bridge in Lewis's honor, an idea previously floated years ago. [213] [214] After his death, the Board of Fairfax County Public Schools announced that Robert E. Lee High School in Springfield, Virginia would be renamed John R. Lewis High School. [215] [216]

Following his death, Troy University announced that the main building on its flagship campus would bear the name of John Lewis. The building, which was the oldest on campus, was previously named after Bibb Graves, a former governor of Alabama and high-ranking officer of the Ku Klux Klan. [217]

On July 30, 2018, the Atlanta City Council voted to rename Atlanta's Freedom Parkway John Lewis Freedom Parkway. [218] On November 5, 2020, the Metropolitan Council of Nashville and Davidson County voted to rename an extensive part of Nashville, Tennessee's 5th Avenue John Lewis Way. [219] [220] [221]

On August 1, 2020, a statue of Lewis was revealed by sculptor Gregory Johnson. The statue was commissioned by Rodney Mims Cook Jr. and was installed at Cook Park in Atlanta, Georgia, in April 2021. [222] [223]

On February 21, 2021, President Joe Biden marked Lewis' late birthday on Sunday, urging all Americans to “carry on his mission in the fight for justice and equality for all.” He tweeted, “While my dear friend may no longer be with us, his life and legacy provide an eternal moral compass on which direction to march. May we carry on his mission in the fight for justice and equality for all.” [224]

Honorary academic degrees Edit

Lewis was awarded more than 50 honorary degrees, [225] including:

  • 1989: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Troy State University (now Troy University) [226]
  • 1995: Honorary Doctor of Public Service degree from Northeastern University[227]
  • 1998: Honorary Humane Letters degree from Brandeis University[228]
  • 1999: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Massachusetts Boston[229]
  • 1999: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Knox College[230]
  • 2001: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from University at Albany[231]
  • 2002: Honorary D.H.L. from Howard University[232]
  • 2003: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the College of Wooster[233]
  • 2004: Honorary degree from Portland State University[234]
  • 2004: Honorary LHD from Juniata College[235]
  • 2007: Honorary LL.D. degree from the University of Vermont[236]
  • 2007: Honorary LL.D. degree from Adelphi University[237]
  • 2012: Honorary LL.D. degrees from Brown University, [238]University of Pennsylvania, [239]Harvard University, [211] and the University of Connecticut School of Law[240]
  • 2013: Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters[241] from Judson College.
  • 2013: Honorary LL.D. degrees from Cleveland State University[242] and Union College[243]
  • 2014: Honorary LL.D. degree from Emory University[244]
  • 2014: Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from the School of Visual Arts. [245]
  • 2014: Honorary Bachelor of Arts from Lawrence University. [246]
  • 2014: Honorary Doctor of Letters degree from Marquette University[247]
  • 2015: Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from the McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University. [248]
  • 2015: Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Lawrence University[249]
  • 2015: Honorary degree from Goucher College[250]
  • 2015: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Hampton University[251]
  • 2016: Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from New York University. [252]
  • 2016: Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Bates College[210]
  • 2016: Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Washington University in St. Louis[253]
  • 2016: Honorary Doctor of Policy Analysis from the Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School[254]
  • 2016: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Washington and Jefferson College[255]
  • 2017: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Yale University[256]
  • 2017: Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Berea College[257]
  • 2017: Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from Bank Street Graduate School of Education[258]
  • 2018: Honorary Doctor of Law degree from Boston University[259]
  • 2019: Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from City College of New York[260]
  • 2019: Honorary Doctorate from Tulane University[261]
Georgia's 5th congressional district : Results 1986–2018 [262] [263] [264] [265] [266]
Jaar Demokraties Stemme % Republikein Stemme %
1986 John Lewis 93,229 75% Portia Scott 30,562 25% [267]
1988 John Lewis 135,194 78% J. W. Tibbs 37,693 22% [268]
1990 John Lewis 86,037 76% J. W. Tibbs 27,781 24% [269]
1992 John Lewis 147,445 72% Paul Stabler 56,960 28% [270]
1994 John Lewis 85,094 69% Dale Dixon 37,999 31% [271]
1996 John Lewis 136,555 100% No candidate [272]
1998 John Lewis 109,177 79% John H. Lewis 29,877 21% [273]
2000 John Lewis 137,333 77% Hank Schwab 40,606 23% [274]
2002 John Lewis 116,259 100% No candidate [275]
2004 John Lewis 201,773 100% No candidate [73]
2006 John Lewis 122,380 100% No candidate [74]
2008 John Lewis 231,368 100% No candidate [75]
2010 John Lewis 130,782 74% Fenn Little 46,622 26% [276]
2012 John Lewis 234,330 84% Howard Stopeck 43,335 16% [276]
2014 John Lewis 170,326 100% No candidate [76]
2016 John Lewis 253,781 84% Douglas Bell 46,768 16% [277]
2018 John Lewis 273,084 100% No candidate [77]

Lewis was portrayed by Stephan James in the 2014 film Selma. He made a cameo appearance in the music video for Young Jeezy's song "My President", which was released in the month of Obama's inauguration. [278] [279] In 2017, John Lewis voiced himself in the Arthur episode "Arthur Takes a Stand". [280] Lewis's life was chronicled in the 2017 PBS documentary John Lewis: Get in the Way [281] and the 2020 CNN Films documentary John Lewis: Good Trouble. [282]

Lewis appeared in the 2019 documentary Bobby Kennedy for President, in which Lewis commends Robert F. Kennedy especially in regards to his support for civil rights throughout his time as a senator for New York and during Kennedy's 1968 presidential campaign. [283] Lewis also recounted his deep sorrow following the 1968 assassinations of Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.. [284]

Lewis appeared alongside Amandla Stenberg to present Groen boek as Best Picture at the 91st Academy Awards that took place on February 24, 2019.

Lewis attended comics conventions to promote his graphic novel, most notably the San Diego Comic-Con, which he attended in 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017. During the 2015 convention, Lewis led, along with his graphic novel collaborators Andrew Aydin and Nate Powell, an impromptu simulated Selma civil rights march arm in arm with children, during which he wore the same clothes as he did on Bloody Sunday, garnering thousands of con goers to participate. The event became so popular it was repeated in 2016 and 2017. [285] [286]


The Partnership Today

Throughout our history we’ve continued to differentiate and find new ways to become a better way of doing business. Wherever Partners work in the Partnership, they each have a part to play, to ensure the future success of the business they co-own. The 21st century presents itself as a challenging time for the world of retail but, it is one we are willing to face into, just as we have faced into other challenges in the past.

Waitrose & Partners and John Lewis & Partners shop exteriors post the Partnership rebrand in September 2018.

Discover a career with us today.

NB
Most of the above text comes from the John Spedan Lewis centenary book. Images on this page are all held in the Partnership archives.


Kyk die video: The life of US civil rights hero John Lewis