Beverly Oliver

Beverly Oliver


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Beverly Oliver is gebore in 1946. Sy het as danser by die Colony Club gewerk. Dit was langs die Carousel Club (in besit van Jack Ruby).

Oliver beweer dat sy aan die suidekant van Elmstraat gestaan ​​het toe John F. Kennedy vermoor is. Sy was dus een van die naaste getuies van die skoot wat Kennedy doodgemaak het. Sy het die motorfiets met 'n Super-8 Yashica-filmkamera verfilm, maar beweer dat dit op 25 November deur 'n agent van die Federale Buro vir Ondersoek geneem is en dat sy dit nooit weer gesien het nie. Oliver het later Regis Kennedy geïdentifiseer as die FBI -agent wat die film van haar geneem het. Kennedy was egter op daardie stadium in New Orleans onderhoude met Jack Martin.

Oliver het Dallas kort ná die sluipmoord verlaat en weggekruip (Oliver beweer dat sy gevrees het dat sy vermoor sou word as sy in die stad sou bly).

In 1970 trou Oliver met die skelmspeler George McGann. Kort daarna is hy deur mede -gangsters vermoor. Later het Oliver 'n onderhoud aan Gary Mack gegee. Sy beweer dat sy in 1963 'n gereelde besoeker aan die Carousel Club was en dat Jack Ruby haar aan Lee Harvey Oswald voorgestel het. Oliver beweer ook dat hy David Ferrie en Jack Lawrence in die klub gesien het.

Een van die raaiselagtige figure in Dealey Plaza in die oomblikke toe John Kennedy vermoor is, was "The Babushka Lady", so genoem omdat sy 'n serp gedra het soos 'n Russiese ouma sou dra.

Dit lyk asof sy die motor opneem, miskien met 'n amateurfilmkamera, maar sy het haar nie op die dag van die sluipmoord aan die wet geïdentifiseer nie. En in die dae en weke wat volg op die sluipmoord, het niemand opgedaag wat beweer dat sy haar is nie, en geen film wat uit haar posisie geskiet is nie, is ontdek.

In 1970 het 'n vrou met die naam Beverly Oliver na vore gekom en in onderhoude met navorser J. Gary Shaw beweer dat sy die Babushka Lady was. Sy was 'n danser en sanger (hoewel dit blykbaar nie 'n ontkleedanseres is nie) by die Colony Club, 'n strook wat saam met Jack Ruby's Carousel Club meegeding het. Sy beweer dat sy aansienlike tyd in die Carousel Club deurgebring het en dat sy Jack Ruby goed geken het. Deur die jare is haar verhaal uitgebrei om baie elemente te bevat wat, indien waar, 'n sameswering om Kennedy te vermoor, impliseer.

Een van die mees algemene vrae oor getuies van die sluipmoord op Kennedy, handel oor 'n geheimsinnige jong vrou wat bekend gestaan ​​het as The Babushka Lady. Sy kan duidelik gesien word op die Zapruder -film en ook op verskillende ander filmfilms en stilfoto's wat op 22 November 1963 in Dealey Plaza geneem is. Sy was een van die min getuies wat nie onmiddellik geïdentifiseer is nie - dus die nogal vreemde bynaam wat sy gekry het na die 'babushka' of driehoekige kopdoek wat sy die dag gedra het.

Die vraag wat The Babushka Lady uitlok, het veel meer geword as net: "Wie is sy?" Dit het baie meer positief geword: "Is The Babushka Lady en Beverly Oliver een en dieselfde persoon?" Die belangrikste aspek van The Babushka Lady is ongetwyfeld die feit dat dit lyk asof sy die motorfilm verfilm. Haar posisie aan die suidekant van Elmstraat, naby ooggetuies Charles Brehm, Jean Hill, Mary Moorman, ensovoorts, beteken dat haar film amper 'n spieëlbeeld van die Z-Film sou wees. Miskien belangriker as die presidensiële limousine self, is wat daaragter gesien kan word. Die agtergrond vir die film van The Babushka Lady sou onvermydelik die Texas School Book Depository (moontlik insluitend die sogenaamde sluipskutternesvenster) en die grasveld insluit.

Die kwessie van die identiteit van The Babushka Lady bly 'n totale raaisel na die dood van die president. Niemand het na vore gekom om te beweer dat dit die geheimsinnige ooggetuie was nie en verder kon niemand voorstel wie die vrou was nie. Daar het dit gebly, en sou dit moontlik ook gebly het, as dit nie was vir 'n toevallige ontmoeting tussen die bekende moordnavorser J Gary Shaw en 'n jong dame genaamd Beverly McGann kort na 'n kerkdiens in die First Baptist Church of Joshua ('n klein dorpie in Texas) 20 myl suid van Fort Worth) in November 1970.

Die nagevolge van hierdie vergadering is algemeen bekend en is in baie boeke goed gedokumenteer. Beverly McGann (geb. Oliver) vertel met Gary Shaw hoe sy die motorfiets en die sluipmoord van 'n punt aan die suidekant van Elmstraat verfilm het. Soos almal wat Gary ken sou weet, het hy nie net hierdie vreemdeling se verhaal sonder twyfel aanvaar nie. Nie bewus daarvan dat sy nie die geleentheid gehad het om die Zapruder -film (en The Babushka Lady) te sien nie, het hy haar na Dealey Plaza geneem en haar gevra om presies aan te dui waar sy op die noodlottige dag gestaan ​​het. Tot Gary se verbasing, huiwer sy nie, maar gaan reguit na die punt waar The Babushka Lady op die Z-Film te sien is.

Die twis oor die bewering van Beverly Oliver om The Babushka Lady te wees, het van die dag tot vandag onverpoosd gewoed - en is steeds een van die mees gedebatteerde aspekte van die Kennedy -sluipmoord. Alhoewel daar dele van Beverly se verslag is wat ek moeilik vind om te verstaan, glo ek vas dat Beverly Oliver en The Babushka Lady een en dieselfde persoon is. Soos baie navorsers van my kennis, het ek aan weerskante van die Atlantiese Oseaan gereeld betrokke geraak by hewige gesprekke (argumente?) Oor hierdie vraag. Ek is verheug om te kan rapporteer dat, hoe betrokke sommige van hierdie besprekings ook al is, ek nog nie met iemand 'n hou gewissel het nie.

Ek het 'n voordeel bo baie navorsers, veral diegene buite die Verenigde State, omdat ek die plesier en voorreg gehad het om Beverly Oliver en haar man Charles Massegee by verskeie geleenthede te ontmoet. Ek dink graag dat ons mekaar vertrou en respekteer, en ek is trots om Beverly Oliver my vriend te noem. Miskien word daar gedink dat dit my mening dat Beverly was The Babushka Lady geneig is, kleur het. Ek sal dit weerlê en beklemtoon dat ek deur die afgelope paar jaar gereeld met Beverly te spreek het, iemand leer ken het wat na my mening een van die openlikste en eerlikste mense is wat ek nog ooit teëgekom het.

Ek was 'n 17-jarige meisie wat die dag by Dealey Plaza was en foto's neem van die president toe hy vermoor word. Ek wou nooit hieroor 'n openbare figuur word nie. Ek was nooit van plan om dit te doen nie. Totdat my naam per ongeluk in 1972 aan die pers gelek is, was ek nie 'n openbare persoon nie. Dit het my groot hartseer veroorsaak. Dit het my baie kommer in my lewe veroorsaak.

Ek is so onlangs as vandag 'n leuenaar genoem. Ek is 'n hoax genoem. Ek is nie 'n leuenaar nie, en ek is ook geen bedrog nie. Ek is wie ek sê ek is. Ek was daardie dag daar onder en staan ​​tussen 20 en 30 voet van die president af toe hy geskiet is. Ek was besig om 'n film te neem wat op 25 November in beslag geneem is deur 'n man wat hom as 'n FBI -agent geïdentifiseer het.

Ek het nog nooit onlangs probeer om navraag te doen oor my film nie, want ek is uiters patrioties, het nie gesien dat daar rede was nie, want ek het al die jare aangeneem dat dit tot 2029 as bewys opgesluit is, en ek is nog steeds Ek is nie seker of daar iets sinister aan is nie, en daarom is ek hier. Ek wil net 'n verduideliking hê van wat met my film gebeur het en waar dit is, en dit is die enigste rede waarom ek hier is.


Beverly Oliver - Geskiedenis

Oliver Tractors spoor hul roetes terug na Hart-Parr en Oliver.

Charles Walter Hart en Charles H. Parr het mekaar ontmoet aan die Universiteit van Wisconsin, en terwyl hulle besig was met hul spesiale honneurtesis, wat in 1896 aangebied is, het hulle hul eerste enjin geskep.

Na die gradeplegtigheid is die Hart-Parr Company op 12 Junie 1901 in Charles City, Iowa, georganiseer, en Hart-Parr nommer 1 is in 1902 voltooi. Die & quottraction engine & quot was nie 'n onmiddellike sukses nie, maar in 1906 het W.H. Williams, verkoopsbestuurder, het die term & quottractor & quot geskep, en van toe af was Hart-Parr bekend as die & quotFounders of the Tractor Industry & quot.

Oliver Chilled Plough Company

James Oliver is op 28 Augustus 1823 in Skotland gebore, en in 1834, op elfjarige ouderdom, immigreer hy saam met sy gesin na Garden Castle, New York. Die gesin verhuis wes na Indiana, maar sy skoolopleiding eindig in 1837 met die dood van sy vader. Hy het by die eienaar van 'n paalboot gaan werk, maar hy hou nie van die lawaaierige lewe van 'n rivierman nie, maar het opgehou om die ambag van yster te leer.

James is in 1844 getroud en het gewerk by die giet, saamwerk en boer. In 1855, terwyl hy in South Bend, Indiana, op besigheid was, ontmoet Oliver 'n man wat 'n kwartbelang in sy gietery vir die voorraadwaarde ($ 88,96) wou verkoop. Oliver het destyds $ 100 in sy sak gehad, en daarom het hy eienaar geword van die gietysterploegbedryf.

As boer het James geweet dat geen van die gietysterploeë wat hy gebruik het bevredigend was nie. James het van die verkoelde ploeg 'n praktiese sukses gemaak, want die buitenste vel kon in swaar gronde skuur.

Op 22 Julie 1868 is die South Bend Iron Works opgeneem vir die vervaardiging van die Oliver Chilled Plough, en in 1870 is die beroemde Oliver -logo ontwerp.

James Oliver sterf in 1908 op die ouderdom van vyf en tagtig, en Joseph D. Oliver word hoof van die onderneming. Joseph het geweldige organisasie- en bemarkingsvaardighede, en die onderneming floreer en brei voort, en dit was Joseph wat die onderneming in 1929 met Hart-Parr en ander saamgesmelt het om die Oliver Farm Equipment Company te stig.

Teen 1929 vervaardig die Hart-Parr Tractor Company, die American Seeding Machine Company en die Nichols and Shepard Company masjinerie wat verouderd raak, en hulle het nie die kapitaal en kundigheid om verdere vordering voort te sit nie. Op 1 April 1929 het hierdie drie maatskappye dus met die Oliver Chilled Plough Company saamgesmelt om die Oliver Farm Equipment Corporation te vorm. Hierdie volledige lynvervaardiger het sy naam 'n paar jaar later tot Oliver Corporation verkort.

Die Oliver Corporation het voortgegaan met innovering met dieselenjins en in die periode 1948 tot 1954 'n nuwe reeks Fleetline -modelle.

Op 1 November 1960 verkry White Motor Corporation van Cleveland, Ohio, 'n vragmotorvervaardiger, Oliver Corporation as 'n volfiliaal. White verkry ook Cockshutt Farm Equipment of Canada in Februarie 1962, en dit is 'n filiaal van Oliver Corporation.

(In 1928 het Cockshutt Canada trekkers wat deur Hart-Parr vervaardig is, bemark, en vanaf 1934 tot in die laat veertigerjare het trekkers wat deur Oliver gemaak is, bemark, wat slegs die verfrooi verander en die naamplaatjies na Cockshutt verander het).

In 1969 stig White Motor Corporation White Farm Equipment Company en begin geleidelik oorskakel na die White -naam. Die Oliver 2255, ook bekend as die White 2255, was die laaste suiwer & quotOliver & quot -trekker. Met die bekendstelling van die White 4-150 Field Boss in 1974, is die White-naam uitsluitlik gebruik; die Oliver-naam was nie meer nie. In 1985 is die White Farm Equipment Company in onwillekeurige bankrotskap geplaas. Vandag is die patente die eiendom van Agco-Allis.


Het Jack Ruby Lee Harvey Oswald geken?

J ack Ruby (gebore Jacob Rubenstein) was 'n vulgêre, gewelddadige, lae lewe. Maar 'n trotse een. Hy het opgestaan ​​uit die krotbuurte wat in Chicago gedomineer is-waar hy, toe hy grootgeword het, vir Al Capone boodskappe kon doen. Nou, in 1963, het Ruby sy eie striptease-klub in Dallas bestuur-lomp vir sommige, maar vir Jack "'n fantastiese gesamentlike".

The Carousel was 'n vervalle loop in Commercestraat, waar Jack (of "Sparky", soos die eienaar maklik ontbrand het) toesig gehou het oor 'n seremoniemeester, vier ontkleedansers en 'n vyf-stuk stamp-en-maal band. Op Commerce het flitsende neontekens en tellings van agt-by-tien glans stock foto's van byna naakte meisies 'n horing gegee vir die ouens om die trap op te gaan en te geniet van "Dallas se enigste onophoudelike burlesque."

Kort nadat Ruby die moordverdagte van die JFK, Lee Harvey Oswald, vermoor het, het Bill Demar (in die werklike lewe van Bill Crowe) die Oswald in die openbaar geïdentifiseer as 'n onlangse beskermheer. Die towenaar-buikspreker het gesê dat hy Oswald duidelik herinner het omdat Oswald as gehoorlid eintlik deelgeneem het aan Demar se "geheue-daad".

'Ek het 20 kliënte wat verskillende voorwerpe vinnig uitroep,' het Demar aan Associated Press gesê. "Dan vertel ek hulle lukraak wat hulle uitgeroep het. Ek is seker Oswald was een van die mans wat ongeveer nege dae gelede 'n voorwerp uitgeroep het." 1

Die karrouselbeskermer Harvey Wade ondersteun die verhaal van die entertainer, volgens Facts on File.

Die komediant Wally Weston - wat Demar vroeër in November 1963 as emcee voorafgegaan het - beweer Oswald was "ten minste twee keer" by die Carousel voor die sluipmoord. Weston maak die onthulling in 'n eksklusiewe onderhoud van 19 Julie 1976 met die New York Daily News.

Dieselfde artikel berig dat 'die advokaat van Dallas, Carroll Jarnigan, aan FBI -agente gesê het dat hy Oswald en Ruby die aand van 4 Oktober 1963 in die Carousel gesien het, en gehoor het hoe hulle planne bespreek vir Oswald om die goewerneur van Texas, John Connally, wat gewond is, te vermoor. fusillade wat Kennedy vermoor het. "

Hierdie mense was nie die enigste werknemers of kliënte van die Carousel wat president Kennedy se bekende moordenaar met Jack Ruby verbind het nie.

Op 20 was "Little Lynn" (in die privaat lewe, Karen Carlin) Jack se jongste ontkleedanseres. Met lang lokke van kunsmatig gekleurde grys hare, het Lynn die liggaam van 'n swembroek-deelnemer gehad-maar op die verhoog het sy niks anders as 'n groot glimlag, pienk hakke en 'n bypassende G-string nie. 2

Op 24 November 1963 het Little Lynn aan die Amerikaanse geheime diens agent Roger Warner gesê dat sy, volgens sy woorde, "onder die indruk was dat Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby en ander aan haar onbekende individue betrokke was by 'n komplot om president te vermoor. Kennedy en dat sy vermoor sou word as sy inligting aan die owerhede sou gee. ” Volgens Lynn is daar in 1964 aan 'n skietwond in Houston dood Ensiklopedie van die JFK -moord. 3

Volgens sommige berigte, nog voordat haar baas Oswald vermoor het, het Jack se bekende ontkleedanseres, die 27-jarige "Jada" (regte naam, Janet Conforto) aan verslaggewers gesê dat Ruby en Oswald bekend was. Beskryf deur die Ruby-biograaf Seth Kantor as 'aangevul met animalisme', is die oranje hare Jada deur Ruby gewerf uit 'n klub in New Orleans. Volgens die Ensiklopedie van die JFK -moord, die gewrig was gedeeltelik in besit van die grootste onderwêreld in Louisiana en Texas, die verdagte van die moord op JFK, Carlos Marcello. 4

In Dallas, selfs buite die verhoog, was Jada die rol van 'n ster ... en van 'n wilde ekshibisionis. Gewoonlik dra sy net 'n minkjas en skoene met hoë hakke, en draai om die stad in 'n nuwe goue Cadillac-omskepbare motor met 'JADA' op die deur in reliëf. Na 'n noemenswaardige besoek aan Mexiko, het die brutale ontkleedanser teruggekeer met 200 pond dagga in die bagasiebak van die Caddy, volgens die Dallas -sportverslaggewer Gary Cartwright. 5 Sy het deur die doeane gekom deur die aandag van grensagente af te lei. Jada maak asof sy uit haar motor val, en val toe uit haar jas - wat haar doelbewus blootstel aan grensbeamptes.

Beverly Oliver sing by die Colony Club, 'n parkeerterrein weg van die Carousel. Jare later het Oliver gesê dat sy Jada ongeveer twee weke voor die sluipmoord, tydens 'n besoek aan die Carousel, saam met Ruby en 'n ander man aan 'n tafel gewaar het. “Ruby stel my voor: 'Beverly, dit is my vriend, Lee.' 'Sy het later besef dat Kennedy die beskuldigde moordenaar was.

Maar Beverly het ma eers op haar Ruby-Oswald-oog gehou, het sy gesê, omdat sy vir haar lewe gevrees het. Oliver wou nie soos Jada beland nie, wat volgens haar 'n geheimsinnige dood gesterf het. 6

In 2007 het die sportverslaggewer Gary Cartwright die belangrikste elemente van die rekeninge van Jada en Beverly bevestig: "Na die sluipmoord het Jada ons vertel dat Ruby haar een keer aan Lee Oswald in die Carousel voorgestel het. Terwyl hulle 'n drankie drink, het Beverly Oliver, 'n sanger van die Colony Club langsaan, het gestop en is ook voorgestel ... Jada is nou dood, maar ek het Beverly nie lank gelede gebel nie en gevra of sy dit onthou. "Sekerlik," het sy gesê. Ruby stel hom voor as 'my vriend Lee van die CIA . '"7

Jada het egter nie geheimsinnig gesterf nie. Volgens navorser Mark Colgan is sy op 44 dood in 'n snelwegongeluk in New Mexico in 1980 toe 'n skoolbus oor haar motorfiets gery het. Jada word begrawe onder die naam "JADA" op 'n begraafplaas in New Orleans. 8

En wat van Beverly Oliver se verhaal? Baie vermoedens sê baie sluipmoordkenners. Die bekende navorser John McAdams kom tot die gevolgtrekking: "Geen verklaring dat (Jada) gesê het dat sy Ruby en Oswald saam in enige koerant gesien het nie, en ook nêrens anders nie. En (Jada) het uitdruklik aan die FBI gesê dat sy hulle nog nooit saam gesien het nie." 9

Kurator Gary Mack van die Sixth Floor Museum by Dealey Plaza in Dallas meen ook die bewering van Beverly Oliver is twyfelagtig. Wat 'n Ruby-Oswald-verband betref, het Mack in 'n e-pos van 10 Januarie 2009 aan hierdie skrywer gesê: '... daar is geen bewyse dat hulle bekend was nie, en dit is moeilik om voor te stel dat 'n man met die ander verbind is. Oswald het nie gedrink nie, hy was nooit by klubs nie, hy het sy vrou nie bedrieg nie, en Oswald het beslis niks van betekenis vir Ruby gebring om homself of sy klub te bevorder nie. "

Mack is korrek: daar is geen vaste bewyse nie - soos 'n foto of 'n brief - wat hierdie twee versteurde alleenlopers verbind, het vir ewig by die heupe aangesluit.

Uiteindelik maak dit egter nie regtig saak of Ruby Oswald ken nie.

Wat as daar 'n plan was om president Kennedy te vermoor, wat twee mans insluit wat mekaar nie ken nie? Ruby en Oswald kon heel moontlik deel van hierdie sameswering gewees het en Ruby kon geaktiveer gewees het om Oswald dood te maak na Oswald se arrestasie. Dit kan wees wat Oswald aangedui het toe hy volgehou het: "Ek is 'n patsy." En dit kon gewees het waarna Ruby verwys het toe hy verklaar het: "Ek is vir 'n doel gebruik."

Daar is 'n groot hoeveelheid omstandigheidsgetuienis dat Ruby en Oswald verbind was met Carlos Marcello, baas van New Orleans. En baie JFK -moordkenners glo dat Marcello 'n rol gespeel het in die president se moord.

In 'n nuwe boek, Legacy of Secrecy: The Long Shadow of the JFK Assassination, Lamar Waldron voer aan dat die peetvader van New Orleans die JFK -moord eintlik ontwerp het. Hy noem opspraakwekkende pas vrygelate FBI -gevangenislêers uit 1985 waarin Marcello erken: "Ja, ek het 'n teef doodgemaak. Ek is bly dat ek dit gedoen het. Ek is jammer dat ek dit nie self kon gedoen het nie!"

In die FBI -lêers - gebaseer op goggas wat in die geheim in Marcello se sel geplaas is - het die gepeupelaar erken dat hy 'n medewerker, Jack Ruby, gebruik het om Oswald dood te maak. Marcello het ook erken dat hy Ruby in die kroegonderneming in Dallas gestig het.

Volgens die New York Post het Marcello gesê dat hy Oswald via die David Ferrie, 'n operateur van Marcello wat Oswald in New Orleans geken het, by die JFK -moordgrond ingebring het. 11

Die peetvader het 'n groot beesvleis teen die Kennedy -broers gehad omdat Bobby Kennedy - die grootste vyand van die regering in misdaad georganiseer - hom eenmaal met geweld na Guatemala gedeporteer het.

Die bekendmaking oor Marcello in die nuut vrygestelde FBI -lêers ondersteun die gevolgtrekkings van die mees gekwalifiseerde deskundige oor die moord op JFK — G. Robert Blakey, wat hoofadvokaat en personeeldirekteur was van die middel-sewentigerjare se House Select Committee on Assassinations. In Die plan om die president dood te maak in 1981 het Blakey bevind dat Marcello en twee ander peetvaders - Santos Trafficante van Florida en die baas van Chicago Outfit, Sam "Mooney" Giancana - medepligtig was aan die beplanning van Kennedy se dood in Dallas.

Oswald het bande in New Orleans gehad deur sy oom, Charles "Dutz" Murret, wat 'n boekie was vir Sam Saia, 'n dobbelknop en Marcello sidekick. In 1963, toe Oswald in New Orleans gewoon het, werk hy vir Saia as naaswenner by Felix Oyster House - een van Saia se boekwinkelsalonne in die Franse kwartier - volgens Blakey. In 'n 7 November 1993 Washington Post Blakey het ook daarop gewys dat John H. Davis 'n onderhoud gevoer het met Joseph Hauser, 'n getuie in 'n federale strafregtelike ondersoek na Marcello, vir sy Marcello -biografie, Mafia Kingfish. Hauser rekonstrueer vir Davis 'n verklaring wat Marcello aan hom gemaak het:

Oswald? Ek ken sy [uiters] familie. Sy oom hy werk vir my. Die kind werk vir my. Hy werk vir Sam buite sy plek in die middestad. Die federale kom. vra hom uit, maar my mense het hulle niks vertel nie. Soos ons nog nooit van die ou gehoor het nie.

Wat die bande van Jack Ruby aan die baas van die oudste misdaadfamilie in Amerika betref, het Blakey se paneel in die sewentigerjare skakels tussen die eienaar van die nagklub "en verskeie individue verbonde aan die onderwêreldbedrywighede van Carlos Marcello. Ruby was 'n persoonlike kennis van Joseph Civello, die Marcello -medewerker wat na bewering die hoof was van georganiseerde misdaadaktiwiteite in Dallas ... (en) 'n nagklubfiguur in New Orleans, Harold Tannenbaum, met wie Ruby dit oorweeg het om in die herfs van 1963 in vennootskap te tree. "

Kort na die sluipmoord het Jack Ruby se hoofopskrif, Jada - met reg blyk dit - koue water op Ruby se aanvanklike verskoning gegooi om Oswald te vermoor. Ruby beweer dat hy 'n super-patriot was wat president Kennedy liefgehad het en dat sy optrede polities gemotiveerd was. Nie so vinnig nie, het die oranjehaarstroper tydens 'n onderhoud met ABC se Paul Good op YouTube gesê: "Ek glo hy het Bobby Kennedy nie gehou nie ... ek het nie gedink dat hy (president) Kennedy so lief was nie" om Oswald dood te maak. 12

'N Aanduiding voor die sluipmoord dat Ruby moontlik deel was van 'n sameswering om die president dood te maak, het omstreeks 12:00 op 21 November 1963 gekom.

'N Paar polisiebeamptes in Dallas het in die kantoor van die assistent -distriksprokureur, Ben Ellis, vergader toe Ruby 'n besigheidskaartjie binnegedraai het wat Jada se optrede in die Carousel adverteer. Volgens Lt. W. F. Dyson het Ruby homself aan Ellis voorgestel en bygevoeg: 'U ken my waarskynlik nie nou nie, maar u sal wel.' 13

Het Ruby koue voete gekry of bedink voordat hy Ruby aan die Colt Cobra van 38 kaliber in die kelder van die Dallas-polisiekantoor die sneller getrek het? Of wou hy vasgevang word voordat hy werklik sy missie uitgevoer het?

Billy Grammer, 'n afrigter van die polisie in Dallas, sê hy het die aand voor Oswald se moord 'n telefoniese dreigement teen Oswald se lewe ontvang. Hy het gesê dat die tipster hom nie identifiseer nie, maar wel die beampte by die naam gegroet het. Die oproeper het die polisie aangeraai om die volgende dag hul planne vir die oordrag van Oswald na 'n ander gevangenis te verander. Die stem aan die ander kant was dringend en beweer: "Ons gaan hom doodmaak!"

Eers nadat Jack Ruby Oswald vermoor het, het Grammer besef dat hy met 'n plaaslike striptease -kluboperateur gesels het wat hy goed ken. 'Dit moes Ruby wees', het hy later onthul. Grammer sê dat die oproep hom oortuig het dat die dood van Oswald 'nie spontaan' was nie, maar eerder 'n 'beplande gebeurtenis'. 14

Terwyl Ruby se ongelooflike misdaad deur miljoene op lewendige TV getuig is, was Ralph Harris van Reuters een van die eerste verslaggewers in die kelder wat 'n telefoon gryp en 'n nuusbrief aan die redakteurs van sy draaddiens voorskryf: 'Die noodlottige skoot wat deur Jack Ruby in Oswald se maag op 'n duidelike afstand, in die teenwoordigheid van gewapende polisie en verslaggewers, het so 'n indrukwekkende impak gehad dat die toneel in 'n oomblik van verlamde verstomming gevries het, en daarna 'n pandemonium toe Oswald op die betonvloer val. " 15

Kort voor sy dood aan kanker in 1967, het Ruby in die geheim 'n briefie aan die adjunk -balju van Dallas, Al Maddox, gestuur. In 'n TV -onderhoud in Julie 1996 het Maddox onthul dat Ruby in die brief erken dat daar 'n sameswering was om JFK te vermoor, en dat Ruby se motief om die vermeende presidensiële sluipmoordenaar te vermoor nie patriotisme was nie, maar eerder 'Oswald te stil'. 16

Sodra hy die dood van Oswald op TV sien, het Prokureur -generaal Robert Kennedy dieselfde gevolgtrekking gemaak. Volgens Ruby het Moby oor hom geskryf - en daarom stuur hy onmiddellik sy top -ondersoeker, Walt Sheridan, na Dallas om na Ruby se agtergrond te kyk. Binne 'n paar uur het Sheridan 'bewys gelewer dat Ruby in Chicago afbetaal is' deur 'n nabye medewerker van die president van die Mobbed-up Teamsters Union, Jimmy Hoffa, 'n dodelike vyand van die Kennedy-broers. Sheridan het gesê Ruby het 'n bondel geld by Allen M. Dorfman opgetel, 'n hoofman Hoffa.

Toe die prokureur-generaal Jack Ruby se baie oproepe voor die sluipmoord ondersoek na belangrike Mafia-persone, het die georganiseerde misdaadkenner verklaar: 'Die lys was amper 'n duplikaat van die mense wat ek voor die (Senaat) Rackets-komitee gebel het,' het hy aan David Talbot gesê. skrywer van Broers. 17

Miskien gedeeltelik uit vrees vir sy eie lewe, het Bobby Kennedy sy ondersoek na die moord op sy geliefde broer vir homself gehou. En hy weier om saam te werk met die ondersoek van die Warren -kommissie. In sy boek Broers, David Talbot sê Bobby wou die ondersoek heropen as hy president word. Talbot bespiegel dat in Los Angeles, in 1968, die hoopvolle Robert Kennedy in die Withuis moontlik doodgeskiet is deur dieselfde samesweerders wat sy broer Jack in Dallas vermoor het.

1 Los Angeles Times, 26 November 1963.

2 New York Times, 30 November 1963

3 Ensiklopedie van die JFK -moord, 122.

5 Texas maandeliks, November, 1975

6 "Die mans wat Kennedy vermoor het," The History Channel.

7 Coverthistory.blog.spot.com, 19 September 2007.

10 E-pos korrespondensie, Mack met outeur, 1-10-09

11 New York Post, 10 Januarie 2009, asook verskeie boekresensies.


JFK se gebruik van onbetroubare getuies

Sommige van die sterkste kritiek op die film dui op die gebruik van drie kwansuis onbetroubare getuies:

Julia Ann Mercer

Julia Ann Mercer (pp.117f gespeel deur Jo Anderson) beskryf hoe sy 'n man gesien het wat ooreenstem met die beskrywing van Jack Ruby en help om 'n geweer aan die grasveld te lewer kort voor die sluipmoord. Dit is in stryd met die oorspronklike verklarings van Mercer, waarin sy nie die man kan identifiseer nie. Mercer self het in 'n latere onderhoud beweer dat hierdie verklarings nie haar werklike getuienis weerspieël nie, en dat die man inderdaad Ruby was.

Vir meer inligting oor Julia Ann Mercer se bewyse en geloofwaardigheid, sien Was Jack Ruby betrokke by die JFK -moord?.

Beverly Oliver

'N Karakter met die naam Beverly (pp. 119 vff gespeel deur Lolita Davidovich) beskryf hoe hy aan Jackie Ruby (gespeel deur Brian Doyle –Murray) aan Lee Harvey Oswald (gespeel deur Gary Oldman) in 'n nagklub in Dallas voorgestel word. Alhoewel verskeie ander mense beweer het dat Ruby en Oswald mekaar geken het (sien Jim Marrs, Crossfire: the Plot that Killed Kennedy, Simon and Schuster, 1989, pp.402 �), is daar geen bevestiging vir die episode in die film nie , wat gebaseer is op 'n merkwaardige onwaarskynlike weergawe van 'n vrou met die naam Beverly Oliver, wat beweer het dat die voorval in Ruby ’s Carousel Club plaasgevind het, en dat Ruby Oswald aan haar beskryf het as 'n lid van die CIA. Selfs as die voorval in die nagklub plaasgevind het, en selfs al was Oswald 'n lid van die CIA, en selfs as Ruby hierdie feit geweet het, is dit onwaarskynlik dat hy dit aan 'n sewentienjarige sanger in 'n nagklub.

Beverly Oliver beweer ook dat sy die ongeïdentifiseerde vrou in 'n kopdoek was wat op verskeie foto's sigbaar was, en blykbaar die opname van president Kennedy neem toe hy 'n entjie verder in die kop geskiet is. Ongelukkig het die kamera wat Beverly Oliver beweer het gebruik, eers meer as drie jaar na die sluipmoord beskikbaar geword. Vir meer inligting oor haar bewerings en haar twyfelagtige geloofwaardigheid, sien http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/oliver.htm.

Jean Hill

Jean Hill (pp. 122 vff gespeel deur Ellen McElduff) was op die oomblik van die noodlottige skoot selfs nader as die vrou in die kopdoek aan JFK. In die film beweer sy dat sy tussen vier en ses skote gehoor het, en 'n man sien weghardloop van die heining af op die grasveld, wat haar getuienis van die Warren -kommissie weerspieël (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.218). In haar verklaring op die dag van die sluipmoord noem sy die eerste twee skote 8230 en nog drie of vier skote en dat sy 'n man na die monument sien hardloop eerder as weg van die heining af ( Warren Commission Hearings, vol.24, p.212 [Commission Exhibit 2003, p.31]).

Die verhaal van Jean Hill oor die lopende man word ondersteun deur 'n ander getuie, J.C. Price (ibid., P.222 [Commission Exhibit 2003, p.52]). Arnold Rowland berig dieselfde storie tweede en#8211hand (Warren Commission Hearings, deel 2, p.181). Paul Landis, 'n geheime diensagent in die motor agter president Kennedy, het beskryf wat Jean Hill waarskynlik gesien het: 'n man hardloop teen die trappe op na die top van die grasperk (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.18, p.755). Van die drie mans wat tydens die sluipmoord op die trappe gestaan ​​het, is slegs een, Emmett Hudson, geïdentifiseer. Foto's wys dat die onbekende man wat by die trappe opgehardloop het, bloot 'n toeskouer was. In die film identifiseer Jean Hill die man as Jack Ruby, waarvoor daar geen geloofwaardige bevestiging is nie.

Die film dramaties ook haar bewering dat sy onmiddellik na die sluipmoord deur onbekende agente bedreig is, sowel as deur die prokureur wat haar namens die Warren -kommissie ondervra het. Sy was nie die enigste getuie wat beweer het dat amptelike ondersoekers nie simpatiek was vir bewyse wat die enigste hipotese weerspreek nie. Miskien is Jean Hill se rekening gebruik om sulke ervarings voor te stel. Die spesifieke voorvalle wat sy beskryf het, bied wel 'n vermaaklike film, maar dit het geen onafhanklike bevestiging nie.

JFK se gebruik van Jean Hill se bewyse illustreer een van die maniere waarop die film sy eie geloofwaardigheid ondermyn het. Mediakommentators het na hierdie episode verwys as 'n spesifieke voorbeeld van die film se gebrek aan kommer oor historiese akkuraatheid. 'N Publiek sonder spesialiskennis van die sluipmoord kan in die versoeking kom om te wonder hoeveel anders onbetroubaar was.


In 1968 het mnr. Wales en mnr. Tsaousis 'n jong gegradueerde aan die kunsskool gekry met die naam Peter Tysver, wat 'n aanleg toon vir kunsrestourasie en hom as vakleerling aangeneem het.

Toe Tsaousis in 1986 oorlede is, besluit mnr Wales om uit te tree en mnr. Tysver neem die onderneming oor. Op 'n manier soortgelyk aan sy eie inleiding tot die kunsherstel, het 'n jong kunstenaar, Gregory Bishop, by die onderneming aansoek gedoen om 'n vakleerlingskap. Mnr. Bishop is in 1990 aangestel en is deur mnr. Tysver noukeurig opgelei in alle aspekte van die bewaring en herstel van skilderye gedurende 'n paar jaar.

Mnr. Bishop en Mnr. Tysver het uiteindelik sakevennote geword en die onderneming het oor die jare floreer en gegroei. Na 50 jaar by Oliver Brothers het mnr. Tysver besluit om af te tree. Hy is steeds deeltyds by die maatskappy.

Na die aftrede van mnr. Tysver in 2017, aanvaar Greg Bishop die rol van die firma se hoof uitvoerende beampte.

Na meer as 'n halfeeu se voortgesette werking, het die doelwitte, missie en kultuur van die onderneming nie verander nie. Op 'n manier soortgelyk aan die ateljees van die Ou Meesters, word die kontinuïteit van Oliver Brothers vir meer as honderd en sewentig jaar gehandhaaf, van die begin tot vandag toe.

OLIVER BROTHERS COLLECTION EXHIBIT

Ons het baie ou gereedskap, pigmente, kwaste, potte en talle ander voorwerpe wat deur die jare deur die Oliver Brothers -restaurateurs gebruik is, bewaar en vertoon. Alhoewel ons nie die oorspronklike vakuumpers uit die 1920's gebruik nie, is die enjin nog steeds in werking. Ons bied graag 'n demonstrasie / toer aan vir almal wat meer wil leer.

We have digitized and published all magazine and newspaper articles about the company we found so far. If anyone has any additional information please let us know.


A BEAUTIFUL TRADITION

Oliver Brothers, the oldest art restoration firm in the country, has been making paintings beautiful again since 1850.

Over that time, the firm has taken in paintings by Rembrandt, Degas and Cezanne — as well as Andy Warhol, Andrew Wyeth and Winslow Homer — then returned them to their owners looking good as new.

Recently, the firm moved from Boston to Beverly.

“There are two main aspects to restoration: the structural aspect of the painting and the appearance of the painting,” said Peter Tysver, chief restorer at Oliver Brothers. “Both of these are usually compromised by age.”

Paintings dim with the years because their surfaces get dirty, or the coat of varnish that protects the paint deteriorates.

Peter Tysver, co-owner of Oliver Brothers Art Restoration in Beverly, removes the canvas from the stretchers of an early 19th-century screen

Greg Bishop, co-owner of Oliver Brothers Art Restoration in Beverly, and his wife, Mira, speak about the business.

Peter Brefini works on a painting by an unknown artist. The piece on the left is by Alvin Fisher

“The older varnishes were made with organic resins, which turn yellow over a period of time,” Tysver said. “So those are removed to get back to the original color.”

Structural damage occurs when canvas decays, or as the layers of a painting expand and contract with changes in the atmosphere. Those layers include sizing, a kind of glue that strengthens cloth and a coating of gesso, the white ground on which an artist paints.

“In the beginning, when the painting is new, the paint layer is flexible and there isn’t a problem,” Tysver said. “But when the paint layer gets older, it becomes brittle, and when the movement happens underneath the paint, it makes cracks.”

Many of these problems are fixed using a press that was invented by George Taylor Oliver, grandson of James Oliver, the Scottish immigrant who originally founded the firm in New York.

The pressure that smooths paint buckling around cracks, and also fixes a reinforcing liner to the back of the canvas, is created by suction.

“When it goes into the press, it gets sandwiched between these pieces of silicon-coated white craft paper,” said Greg Bishop, who co-owns Oliver Brothers with Tysver. “The vacuum sucks the air out, therefore forcing the adhesive”.

A version of this machine is now standard equipment at all art restoration firms, although that hasn’t benefited Oliver Brothers, because George Taylor never enforced his 1931 patent, Bishop said.

The firm’s original press was in operation until six years ago, when it was replaced with a new model, but they have kept the engine and plan to display it in their new lobby.

Moving to Beverly has doubled the company’s space, which in turn has allowed them to expand their business for customers who don’t need restoration work but would like a frame.

The quarters on Elliott Street feature display racks with frame styles from most major periods in art history, from the Italian Renaissance to the Hudson River School.

There are also frames made of unique materials, such as Peruvian leather, barn wood from Texas or pieces of buildings in New Orleans that were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina.

“It goes through a chemical process to kill any mold,” said Mira Bishop, Greg’s wife, who handles non-restoration custom framing for Oliver Brothers.

There has been sufficient demand for non-restoration framing that the firm now maintains two websites, www.oliverbrothersonline.com and www.oliverbrothersframes.com.

A frame that Bishop created from acrylic is also on display, and she applies her training as a designer to help clients “to see the artwork at its best.”

“I would very frequently go to a client’s home to match the colors, or say, ‘Could you email me photos of the room, so we could look at the whole picture,’” she said.

Moving to Beverly has made life easier for the co-owners, both of whom live on the North Shore, but also for their customers, who no longer have to look for parking in the Back Bay.

Another added benefit is the mixture of light available in the Beverly office, which offsets a perceptual problem called metamerism, in which complex colors look different in various types of light. Gray, for instance, may be a dull color, but it can be made with several mixtures — red and green, blue and orange — each of which looks different depending on the source of illumination.

In the new office, Tysver does retouching in an alcove where he gets light from both a large window and incandescent bulbs in the ceiling.

“The skill of the person that’s doing the retouching is to match the color paint,” Tysver said. “This balance of light here helps us get a middle range.”

Though people can now get degrees in restoration, the firm still trains workers in an apprentice system, which is how Tysver got his start, learning from previous owners Carroll Wales and Constantine Tsaousis.

Wales and Tsaousis, in turn, took over the firm from Fred Oliver, the last member of the founding family to work in the business, who taught them all the techniques the firm had developed over its history.

At any one time, Oliver Brothers has between 50 and 70 restoration jobs under contract, Bishop said, mostly from private clients rather than institutions.

Museums protect paintings by controlling temperature and humidity in their galleries and have in-house staff to address any damage that does occur.

While Oliver Brothers has worked on paintings by many great artists, the firm is just as likely to repair canvases whose only value is sentimental.

“It’s not just people thinking about investments, stocking paintings away for the future,” Bishop said. “In fact, a real important part is the sentiment behind it. People bring things in that they treasure personally.”


Oliver History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

Scottish history reveals Oliver was first used as a surname by the Strathclyde-Briton people. It was a name for someone who lived in Roxburgh. While most of the name likely derive from the Old French Oivier, it is supposed that some of the Scottish instances of this name derive from the Old Norse name Oleifr.

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Early Origins of the Oliver family

The surname Oliver was first found in Roxburghshire, where the first on record in this shire was Walter Olifer who was a Justiciar (Judge) of the district, who witnessed a gift of William the Lion to the serf Gillemachoi de Conglud with his children and all his descendants to the bishop of Glasgow c. 1180. Olyver, son of Kyluert, was one of the followers of the earl of March at end of twelfth century. [1]

Despite the fact that the lion's hare of the family do originate in Scotland and into the English borders, there are significant early English records. "Its principal homes are as follows: in the north, in Northumberland and Durham, whence it extends into the Scottish border counties in the west, in Herefordshire in the east, in Lincolnshire in the south - west (including the contracted form of Olver), in Cornwall and in the south - east, in Kent and Sussex. & quot [2]

And we would be remiss if we did not mention the earliest entry of the family in the Domesday Book of 1086 as a personal name. Later, the Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 list the name as both a personal name and a surname: Oliver Crane in Huntingdonshire, 1273 and Peter filius Oliver in Oxfordshire. [3]

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Early History of the Oliver family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Oliver research. Another 103 words (7 lines of text) covering the years 1250, 1266, 1330, 1436, 1541, 1542, 1546, 1557 and are included under the topic Early Oliver History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Oliver Spelling Variations

It is only in the last few hundred years that rules have developed and the process of spelling according to sound has been abandoned. Scottish names from before that time tend to appear under many different spelling variations. Oliver has been spelled Oliver, Olivier, Ollivier, Olliver and others.

Early Notables of the Oliver family (pre 1700)

Notable amongst the family at this time was John Oliuer, prepositus of Berwick, who witnessed a gift of land to the Hospital of Soltre, c. 1250-1266 William Holifarth or Holyfarth held land in Perth, c. 1330 Thomas Olyver de Swyne who witnessed a declaration dated.
Another 45 words (3 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Oliver Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Oliver family to Ireland

Some of the Oliver family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 90 words (6 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Oliver migration +

Sommige van die eerste setlaars met hierdie familienaam was:

Oliver Settlers in United States in the 16th Century
Oliver Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Adam Oliver, who landed in Virginia in 1637 [4]
  • Nicholas Oliver, who settled in Virginia in 1638
  • Edward Oliver, who arrived in Virginia in 1638 [4]
  • Geoffrey Oliver, who landed in Maryland in 1646 [4]
  • Mary Oliver, who settled in Virginia in 1651
  • . (Meer is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte waar moontlik.)
Oliver Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Brattle Oliver, who arrived in Boston, Massachusetts in 1712 [4]
  • Isaac Oliver, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [4]
Oliver Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Benjamin Oliver, aged 29, who landed in New York in 1812 [4]
  • Esteban Oliver, who arrived in Puerto Rico in 1816 [4]
  • James Oliver, who landed in South Carolina in 1821 [4]
  • Elizabeth Oliver, who landed in New York in 1832 [4]
  • Diego Oliver, who arrived in Spanish Main in 1834 [4]
  • . (Meer is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte waar moontlik.)

Oliver migration to Canada +

Sommige van die eerste setlaars met hierdie familienaam was:

Oliver Settlers in Canada in the 17th Century
Oliver Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Richard Oliver, who settled in Nova Scotia in 1774
  • Mr. Aaron Oliver U.E. who settled in Richmond [Greater Napanee], Ontario c. 1786 he served in the Indian Department [6]
  • Mr. Frederick Oliver U.E. who settled in Richmond [Greater Napanee], Ontario c. 1786 he served in the Indian Department, married with 6 children [6]
  • Thomas Oliver was a fisherman in Devil's Cove, Newfoundland in 1796 [5]
Oliver Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • John Oliver, aged 40, a farmer, who arrived in Quebec aboard the ship "Baltic Merchant" in 1815
  • Mary Oliver, aged 36, who arrived in Quebec aboard the ship "Baltic Merchant" in 1815
  • Rhoda Oliver, aged 17, who arrived in Quebec aboard the ship "Baltic Merchant" in 1815
  • William Oliver, aged 15, who arrived in Quebec aboard the ship "Baltic Merchant" in 1815
  • Stephen Oliver, aged 12, who arrived in Quebec aboard the ship "Baltic Merchant" in 1815
  • . (Meer is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte waar moontlik.)

Oliver migration to Australia +

Emigrasie na Australië het gevolg op die eerste vloot van gevangenes, handelaars en vroeë setlaars. Vroeë immigrante sluit in:

Oliver Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. John Oliver, English tool maker who was convicted in Kent, England for life , transported aboard the "Commodore Hayes" in April 1823, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [7]
  • Mr. John Oliver, British convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for life, transported aboard the "Asia" on 19th November 1827, settling in New South Wales, Australia[8]
  • Mr. Philip Oliver, British convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 14 years, transported aboard the "Bussorah Merchant" on 1st October 1829, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [9]
  • Mr. Robert Oliver, (b. 1781), aged 51, Cornish carpenter who was convicted in Cornwall, England for 14 years for larceny, transported aboard the "Circassian" on 4th November 1832, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land), he died in 1839 [10]
  • Mr. Robert Oliver, Cornish settler convicted in Cornwall, UK on 24th March 1832, sentenced for 14 years, transported aboard the ship "Circassian" on 4th October 1832 to Van Diemen's Land, Tasmania, Australia[11]
  • . (Meer is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte waar moontlik.)
Oliver Settlers in Australia in the 20th Century
  • Mr. Samuel Oliver, (b. 1889), aged 21, Cornish settler travelling aboard the ship "Perthshire" arriving in Queensland, Australia on 26th December 1910 [12]

Oliver migration to New Zealand +

Emigrasie na Nieu-Seeland het in die voetspore van die Europese ontdekkingsreisigers gevolg, soos kaptein Cook (1769-70): eerstens seëlaars, walvisjagters, sendelinge en handelaars. Teen 1838 het die Britse Nieu -Seelandse Kompanjie begin om grond van die Maori -stamme te koop en dit aan setlaars te verkoop, en na die Verdrag van Waitangi in 1840 het baie Britse gesinne op die moeisame reis van ses maande van Brittanje na Aotearoa begin om te begin 'n nuwe lewe. Vroeë immigrante sluit in:

Oliver Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • James Oliver, aged 13, a servant, who arrived in Port Nicholson aboard the ship "Lady Nugent" in 1841
  • James Oliver, aged 38, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Jane Gifford" in 1842
  • Margaret B. Oliver, aged 38, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Jane Gifford" in 1842
  • George B. Oliver, aged 13, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Jane Gifford" in 1842
  • Agnes B. Oliver, aged 11, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Jane Gifford" in 1842
  • . (Meer is beskikbaar in al ons PDF Extended History -produkte en gedrukte produkte waar moontlik.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Oliver (post 1700) +

  • William Hosking "W.H." Oliver (1925-2015), New Zealand historian and poet, awarded the Prime Minister's Awards for Literary Achievement, Non-Fiction in 2008
  • James Trevor "Jamie" Oliver MBE (b. 1975), English television chef, restaurateur, and media personality, perhaps best known for his global campaign for better food education
  • Ralph Addison Oliver (b. 1886), American Republican politician, District Judge in Iowa, 1931-32 Justice of Iowa State Supreme Court, 1938-62 Chief Justice of Iowa State Supreme Court, 1939, 1947 [13]
  • Mr. Richard Scott Oliver O.B.E., British recipient of the Officer of the Order of the British Empire on 29th December 2018 for services to the British community and British business in the United Arab Emirates [14]
  • Michael Oliver (1945-2019), British academic, author, and disability rights activist
  • Walter Reginald Brook Oliver (1883-1957), Australian-born, New Zealand naturalist, ornithologist, malacologist and museum curator
  • Frank Louis Oliver (1922-2018), American politician, Member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives (1973-2010)
  • Paul Hereford Oliver MBE (1927-2017), British architectural historian and writer
  • Susan Oliver (1937-1990), born Charlotte Gercke, an American Primetime Emmy Award nominated actress, known for her work on Peyton Place (1964), BUtterfield 8 (1960) and The Disorderly Orderly (1964)
  • Murray Clifford Oliver (1937-2014), Canadian NHL ice hockey centre, coach, and scout
  • . (Another 141 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Oliver family +

Air New Zealand Flight 901
  • Mr. Mervyn John Oliver (1914-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Palmerston North, North Island, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus he died in the crash [15]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Alan Henry Oliver (1923-1941), Australian Ordinary Seaman from Lindisfarne, Tasmania, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [16]
HMS Prince of Wales
HMS Repulse
  • Mr. Alfred Henry Oliver, British Leading Stoker, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [18]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. H. Oliver (d. 1912), aged 32, English Greaser from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [19]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Raymond Brown Oliver, American Seaman First Class from California, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [20]

Verwante verhale +

The Oliver Motto +

Die leuse was oorspronklik 'n oorlogskreet of slagspreuk. Motte het in die 14de en 15de eeu vir die eerste keer met arms gewys, maar was eers in die 17de eeu in algemene gebruik. Die oudste wapens bevat dus oor die algemeen geen leuse nie. Motte maak selde deel uit van die toekenning van wapens: Onder die meeste heraldiese owerhede is 'n leuse 'n opsionele komponent van die wapen, en dit kan bygevoeg of verander word na gelang dat baie gesinne gekies het om geen leuse te vertoon nie.

Leuse: Ad foedera cresco
Motto -vertaling: I gain by treaty


Book sheds light on North Slope history through family stories

When Beverly Patkotak Grinage sat down to write a book about her family, she went wherever the story took her. She pored through library books and old reports, sought out help from archivists and experts from Washington to the North Slope and put together all the stories her mother had told her that she'd meticulously collected on scraps of paper over time.

Her journey of exploration, study and memory culminated in her new book, "Starvation to Salvation: Paul Patkotak, Apostle of the North." The Sounder spoke with Grinage about her family, history and what it means to remember. This is a portion of that interview.

Q: Can you tell me about when you started writing this book and how the idea came to you?

A: "Oh, it's been something I've been interested in doing for a long time and then my mother passed away (and) a lot of these stories came from her. She would repeat the stories over and over. . It's almost three years since she passed, so I started working on it two years ago, about four or five hours every day, about six days a week.

First, I put what I had together, and then the stories, and also my grandpa's diary — his journal, — tapes, and so forth, and put that all together. I did an inventory after I was done, found the missing puzzle pieces and then started conducting a lot of research.

I went to the National Archives in Seattle. I worked with an archivist out of (the Alaska and Polar Regions Collections and Archives) at the Rasmuson Library at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. (From the) North Slope Borough Inupiat History, Language, Culture, I requested some of their traditional land use inventories. With Seattle Pacific University, I worked with their archivist there. Then, I interviewed family members and put my questions together.

I initially started out wanting to write about my great-grandparents and a family history from that angle, but what I found was there was very little there in terms of (what was) written and people's memories. I kind of shifted my attention to what was being presented to me and that was about my grandpa. So, I spent a year writing and researching and then the next year, 2019 in January, I started the editing process, the proofing process, the layout, restoring the old photos that we had, and then just verifying everything several times, as much as I could, like family stories, doing the family tree."

Q: A lot of people don't ever get the chance to go so deep into their family history. What was that like for you to be in your family's stories and their history and this research for a year?

A: "Oh my gosh. I grew so much. I became stronger just realizing what a struggle and what devastation they experienced and how strong I am and we are to be here today. I mean, I just couldn't believe it. For example, I thought a lot of the suffering and starvation and disease was contained pretty much in my immediate family.

I didn't realize how widespread the devastation for the Inupiaq people really was until I began my research. For example . just during the time period of my grandpa, (thousands) perished during that time, following the arrival of the commercial whaling ships. And then with my grandma, who was Inuvialuit from northern Canada, her people suffered even more greatly. (Where) she comes from, there were about 2,500 people in the early 1800s, that went down to about (200) people by 1905 from the epidemics that began around 1890. I didn't realize all that had happened, even though you hear bits and pieces from our family stories.

And then I was surprised at how quickly some of the specifics or details about our history have been lost or forgotten. Like the village where my grandfather was born or came from, Utuqqaq, was one of the major villages on the North Slope prior to 1900 and now we can't even pinpoint exactly where that village is located. I've worked with North Slope Borough GIS, IHLC, and we don't know where it is exactly.

And with so much of the Elders passing during his time, around his birth and teen years and childhood, they were just trying to survive in all that devastation. When 70% of your people die, a lot of that history goes too."

Q: When you think about him and the time he lived in, how do you think about that differently?

A: "It shows me just how much hope and the will to survive is so critical and how much the way the Inupiaq culture worked so hard to have family ties through namesakes and trading partners, even spousal exchange, adoptions. Those were really important mechanisms for our family to expand their family base so if something terrible happened in one area, they had other areas and family members they can go to. And that's kind of how he survived."

Q: Looking back, did you have any idea you'd eventually write a book?

A: "I had wanted to do this. I had wanted to do this. Way back in the 1980s, Uncle Steve who helped raise me, my grandfather's son, my mom's brother — there's a biography written about my grandpa already by a non-family member. When she came up to Barrow to interview him, he had said, 'No, I'm not speaking to you because my niece Beverly is going to write that book'. And then my cousin, who's like my sister, my uncle's daughter, she also would send me — wherever I was — documents, like the 1978 Elders' Conference. She sent me a book back in the early 1990s and then she sent it to me again about three years ago just in case I forgot to write our family history."

Q: How does it feel to be on the other side of the project, now that you've written the book?

A: "I still can't believe it actually happened. It was not easy. It really wasn't. There were days when I would become really discouraged, but I would take a couple days off and do something else to distract myself and then I'd get right back into it. I just felt something gave me a really strong sense of urgency to get as much written as possible."

Q: It can be hard to trace histories, especially in families that have been broken apart or who have gone through boarding school and experiences like that. What advice would you give to someone who wants to find their own family history and isn't sure how to do it?

A: "Well, I would start by talking with family members, elderly family members, and talking to them, doing some initial research, buying some books or borrowing some books from the library or reports about the timeframe, the area, the village, the camps, and seeing what you can find from there. You know, the census reports, although they were really difficult to follow sometimes and find family members — because we don't have our written history — we didn't have a written language — but those really helped, too. Just sifting through all that is a good start.

And then, just start pulling as much as you can from wherever you can and then just start finding what you're missing and where it leads you. And it's OK to shift directions. I sure did. This was going to be about my great-grandparents and their story and their children and their great-grandchildren, and so forth. But, like I said, I had to shift gears and go where the information was presenting itself and where it was leading me."

Q: Coming from a tradition of oral storytelling and passing these stories on from family member to family member, why do you think it's important to be writing these stories down now?

A: "In our schools, a lot of it is about reading and writing and social media, the internet. We need to have those. We have libraries. We need to really document that history before it's lost forever. And we need to keep re-telling our stories.

You know, I would tell my mom in my mind, oh my gosh, she's told me that like 500 times, and then I got to the point where I just started writing them down each time she told me, on a shopping receipt or on the back of an old envelope. Wherever I was, we'd stop somewhere, and I'd just start writing and putting them in a folder.

When I finished it and started reading the book, oh my gosh, I could feel her re-telling that story. I felt such a connection to her — not only her but my other family members whom I've never met before because they passed away long before, but I felt such a sense of closeness to them and to my mom. I could hear the way she would tell that and re-tell a certain story, like how she would put emotion in this part and that part and oh my goodness, it was wonderful. It's wonderful."

Q: Is there anything you'd like someone reading your book to keep in mind or think about?

A: "How strong of a people we come from. How rich our history really is. When you're doing research, especially historical books and documents from the 1930s, 1940s and even before, there's a lot written about the Arctic and Inupiaq people. But in those books, as well-meaning as the writers were or the researcher, the anthropologist, as well-meaning as those writers were, we were still the subject to them. And there are areas where we're called uncivilized, where we were blamed for contracting certain diseases and dying. You have to sift through that. And that's why it's even more important that we write it, about ourselves from our perspective, without those being less equal approaches.

And the other is that I would listen to interviews of our Elders, like Sadie Neakok's interviews because she talks about her first school teacher that she had in Barrow. She was one of the first Inupiaq schoolteachers up there, Flossie Connery, so I wanted to listen to Sadie's tape-recorded interview with University of Alaska Fairbanks Project Jukebox and others like Ben Nungasak. He was my uncle. They interviewed him on the Meade River area and hunting patterns and so forth.

What really struck me was they'd be interviewed, they'd answer their questions, but there were treasure gems that they'd hint at or include in their answer but unless you're Inupiaq, you don't catch how significant what they just said or alluded to is. You know what I mean? You could have followed up and really gone somewhere exploring what they just introduced. And those are lost unless you know what's really significant and really what makes us tick as Inupiaq people. Unless you're Inupiaq and lived it, you really don't know what makes us tick and I tried to put myself in the shoes of someone who knows nothing about us and tried to really introduce who we are, as well, and where we came from and what's important to us."

Q: Is there anything else you'd like to mention that I didn't ask you about?

A: "The book also talks about — it's really the history of the United States, the history of Alaska, World War II and how the Inupiaq, despite not being part of a state — it was just a territory then — volunteered so willingly to defend the United States. Also, some things I discussed in the book from my grandpa's life story and what I found in doing the research is how the Inupiaq people handled resources and resource management in the past and how and why the Inupiat may have converted so quickly and thoroughly to Christianity, leaving their age-old religion. And those are some of the things I talk about in the book, too, in my grandfather's story."

You can find out more about Grinage's book and purchase copies on her website, starvationtosalvation.com.

Shady Grove Oliver can be reached at [email protected]

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OLIVER HISTORY

Hart-Parr - The Hart-Parr Company was originally formed as the Hart-Parr Engine Works in Madison, Wisconsin by Charles Hart and Charles Parr. In 1900, the decision was made to relocate in Charles City, Iowa. Over the winter of 1901-1902, they produced their first gas traction engine. Hart and Parr were credited for being the first successful mass production gas traction engine company. They are also credited with introducing the word "Tractor" to the English language. By 1907, the Hart-Parr Company was well established in the tractor manufacturing business and had six major branch houses, as well as an evergrowing factory in Charles City. World War I was not a profitable time for Hart-Parr, since they lost a lot of money retooling for the manufacture of munitions. Existing problems caused Charles Hart to leave the company in 1917. Charles Parr remained with the company until his death in 1941. The Hart-Parr Company merged with the Oliver Chilled Plow Works in 1929 to form the Oliver Farm Equipment Company.

Oliver Chilled Plow Works - In 1855, James Oliver of Mishiwaka, Indiana bought 1/4 interest in a small foundry outside of South Bend. In 1857, he received his first patent for his chilled plow. This chilled plow had a very hard outer skin and was able to scour in heavy, sticky soils with greater wearability. Word of its success spread world-wide, resulting in an enormous amount of plows being manufactured and sold. Oliver soon became known as the "Plowmaker for the World." In the 1920's, Oliver began experimenting with a tractor of their own. The result was the "Oliver Chilled Plow Tractor." Only one example of this tractor is known to exist today. Shortly after their tractor venture, Oliver merged with Hart-Parr, who already was set up in the tractor business. A new line of tractors was produced using ideas from the Chilled Plow tractor and Hart-Parr's past experience.

Oliver Farm Equipment Company - This Company was formed in 1929 after the merger of Hart-Parr Tractor Works, Nichols & Shepard, Oliver Chilled Plow Works, and the American Seeding Company. Corporate offices were set up in Chicago, Illinois while the plants remained at their existing locations. The company could now supply the farmer with a tractor, tillage tools, planting tools, and harvesting machines. The Oliver Farm Equipment Company became the Oliver Corporation in 1944.

Cletrac - Cleveland, Ohio continued to produce a full line of crawlers with world-wide exports. Their horsepower range varied from 9 Hp up to their hefty 100 Hp model. In 1944, Cletrac was acquired by the Oliver Corporation. Crawler production continued until 1962 when White Motor Corporation purchased Oliver. At that time the crawler production was relocated to Charles City, Iowa. It remained there until production was discontinued in 1965. Between 1916 and 1944, there were approximately 75 different crawler models.

White Motor Corporation - In 1960, White Motors acquired the Oliver Corporation as a wholly-owned subsidiary. In 1962, they acquired Cockshutt of Canada, and in 1963 ,they also acquired Minneapolis-Moline. In 1969, White Motor Corporation combined its Oliver and Minneapolis-Moline subsidiaries to become the White Farm Equipment Company with headquarters at Oak Brook, Illinois. White Motor Corp. acted as the parent company of the White Farm Equipment Company and continued to exist until the farm equipment division was sold to TIC in 1980, and the truck division was sold to Volvo in 1981. The last Oliver green tractor to roll off the assembly line bearing the Oliver name was in 1976 with the 2255 designation.


Oliver Kelley organizes the Grange

Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Grange, which became a powerful political force among western farmers.

Though he grew up in Boston, Kelley decided in his early twenties that he wanted to become a farmer. In 1849, he booked passage on a steamboat for St. Paul, Minnesota. Though the Minnesota area was dominated more by the Indian trade than farming, Kelley shrewdly saw that the future of the region lay in agriculture, and he proved to be a skilled and progressive farmer. Kelley gained local fame for boldly experimenting with new crops, installing an elaborate irrigation system, and buying one of the first mechanical reapers in the state. His attempts at scientific farming and a series of columns he wrote for national newspapers brought him national recognition—in 1864, he won a prestigious clerking position under the federal commissioner of agriculture in Washington, D.C.

While on a tour of southern farms in 1866, Kelley was struck by the warm reception he received from his fellow Masons in the South, despite the otherwise pervasive dislike of northerners left over from the Civil War. Determined to develop a national organization to unify farmers, he returned to Washington and gathered a group of like-minded friends. In 1867, these men became the founders of the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry, better known as the Grange.

Although the Grange, like the Masons, began primarily as a social organization designed to provide educational and recreational opportunities for farmers, it evolved into a major political force. Farmers who gathered at local Grange Halls often voiced similar complaints about the high rates charged by warehouses and railroads to handle their grain, and they began to organize for state and federal controls over these pivotal economic issues. The Grange smartly recognized the importance of including women, who often proved to be the organization’s most dedicated members.


Kyk die video: Meet Your Provider: Beverly Oliver, ARNP